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GSK3B glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2932, updated on 28-Nov-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
GSK3Bprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glycogen synthase kinase 3 betaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4617
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000082701 MIM:605004
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It is a negative regulator of glucose homeostasis and is involved in energy metabolism, inflammation, ER-stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptotic pathways. Defects in this gene have been associated with Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in brain (RPKM 13.9), thyroid (RPKM 9.9) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See GSK3B in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
3q13.33
Exon count:
13
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20211119 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 3 NC_000003.12 (119821321..120095823, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (119540168..119813294, complement)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene cilia and flagella associated protein 91 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 6912 Neighboring gene nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2 Neighboring gene PHB1 pseudogene 8 Neighboring gene presenilin associated rhomboid like pseudogene Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 13833 Neighboring gene microRNA 6529 Neighboring gene GSK3B divergent transcript Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 762, pseudogene Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 397, pseudogene

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env PDGF protects neurons from gp120-induced cytotoxicity through an increased phosphorylation of both GSK-3beta and Bad, the downregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and inhibition of gp120-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome C PubMed
env Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and erythropoietin treatment protect against HIV/gp120-mediated neuronal damage in culture and in vivo, in part, through cooperative activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling PubMed
Nef nef Incubation of human macrophages with exogenous HIV-1 Nef protein induces phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3ss, and promotes IL-10 release PubMed
Tat tat GSK-3beta inhibitors 6BIO, 6BIOder, and 18BIOder have neuroprotective effects on Tat induced cell death in rat mixed hippocampal cultures PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, PTEN, and GSK-3beta activating PI3K and AKT and inactivating PTEN and GSK-3beta in vIL-6 expressing cells PubMed
tat PDGF-C mediated neuroprotection against HIV-1 Tat results from inactivation of the downstream mediator GSK3beta by its phosphorylation at Ser-9 in human neuroblastoma cells PubMed
tat PI3K/Akt, TRPC, and GSK3beta signaling pathways are all involved in PDGF-C mediated neuroprotection against HIV-1 Tat in human neuroblastoma cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat associates with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) in rat cerebellar granule neurons and increases GSK-3beta activity, suggesting dysregulation of this enzyme could contribute to HIV-induced neuronal apoptosis PubMed
Vpr vpr Treatment of cultured dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of TrKA and pGSK3beta/GSK3beta proteins and pre-treatment with NGF inhibits this Vpr-induced downregulation of TrKA and pGSK3beta/GSK3beta PubMed
Vpu vpu In vitro protein-protein interaction analysis identifies a Vpu-binding host protein glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3B) PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables NF-kappaB binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA polymerase II-specific DNA-binding transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables beta-catenin binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables beta-catenin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables dynactin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables p53 binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables protease binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase A catalytic subunit binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein serine kinase activity IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables protein serine/threonine kinase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
enables protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables protein serine/threonine kinase activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
enables protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables tau protein binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables tau-protein kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables tau-protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables tau-protein kinase activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
acts_upstream_of_or_within ER overload response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to amyloid-beta ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to interleukin-3 ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in cellular response to retinoic acid IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in circadian rhythm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in dopamine receptor signaling pathway NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in epithelial to mesenchymal transition IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in establishment of cell polarity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in establishment of cell polarity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in excitatory postsynaptic potential NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in glycogen metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in hippocampus development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in insulin receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within intracellular signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in intracellular signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in maintenance of cell polarity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in maintenance of cell polarity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in osteoblast differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of dopaminergic neuron differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of negative regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of neuron death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of protein acetylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of protein binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of protein localization to nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of protein-containing complex assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in neuron projection development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in neuron projection organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of GTPase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of autophagy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cell differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell-matrix adhesion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cilium assembly ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
acts_upstream_of positive regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of mitochondrion organization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neuron death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of protein binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of protein catabolic process IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of protein export from nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of protein localization to centrosome IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of protein localization to cilium ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of protein-containing complex assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in protein autophosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in protein phosphorylation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in protein phosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of axon extension ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of axonogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of cellular response to heat TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in regulation of circadian rhythm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of dendrite morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of microtubule anchoring at centrosome IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of microtubule-based process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of neuron projection development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of protein export from nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in superior temporal gyrus development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in viral protein processing TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
part_of Wnt signalosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in axon IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in axon ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
part_of beta-catenin destruction complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
part_of beta-catenin destruction complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
part_of beta-catenin destruction complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
located_in centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in cytosol IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in dendrite ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
is_active_in glutamatergic synapse EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in glutamatergic synapse IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in glutamatergic synapse IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in glutamatergic synapse IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
located_in mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in postsynapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
Names
GSK-3 beta
serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3B
NP_001139628.1
NP_001341525.1
NP_002084.2
XP_006713673.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012922.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4971..278097
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001146156.2NP_001139628.1  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001139628.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069444, AC092910, BC012760, CA312249, DA477189
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54628.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P49841
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q6FI27
    Related
    ENSP00000264235.9, ENST00000264235.13
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51343
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  2. NM_001354596.2NP_001341525.1  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks two alternate in-frame exons compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069444, AC078856, AC092910
    Related
    ENSP00000497956.2, ENST00000650344.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51343
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  3. NM_002093.4NP_002084.2  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002084.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069444, AC092910, BC000251, BC012760, CA312249, DA477189
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2996.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P49841
    Related
    ENSP00000324806.5, ENST00000316626.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51356
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20211119

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    119821321..120095823 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006713610.3XP_006713673.1  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006713673.1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51356
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

RNA

  1. XR_002959518.1 RNA Sequence

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