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GSK3B glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2932, updated on 16-Jul-2017
Official Symbol
GSK3Bprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glycogen synthase kinase 3 betaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4617
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000082701 MIM:605004; Vega:OTTHUMG00000133765
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase, belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation. Polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in modifying risk of Parkinson disease, and studies in mice show that overexpression of this gene may be relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Orthologs
Location:
3q13.33
Exon count:
12
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 3 NC_000003.12 (119821321..120094417, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (119540800..119813264, complement)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene MYCBP associated and testis expressed 1 Neighboring gene nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2 Neighboring gene prohibitin pseudogene 8 Neighboring gene presenilin associated rhomboid like pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986119 Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 762, pseudogene

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env PDGF protects neurons from gp120-induced cytotoxicity through an increased phosphorylation of both GSK-3beta and Bad, the downregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and inhibition of gp120-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome C PubMed
env Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and erythropoietin treatment protect against HIV/gp120-mediated neuronal damage in culture and in vivo, in part, through cooperative activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling PubMed
Nef nef Incubation of human macrophages with exogenous HIV-1 Nef protein induces phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3ss, and promotes IL-10 release PubMed
Tat tat GSK-3beta inhibitors 6BIO, 6BIOder, and 18BIOder have neuroprotective effects on Tat induced cell death in rat mixed hippocampal cultures PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, PTEN, and GSK-3beta activating PI3K and AKT and inactivating PTEN and GSK-3beta in vIL-6 expressing cells PubMed
tat PDGF-C mediated neuroprotection against HIV-1 Tat results from inactivation of the downstream mediator GSK3beta by its phosphorylation at Ser-9 in human neuroblastoma cells PubMed
tat PI3K/Akt, TRPC, and GSK3beta signaling pathways are all involved in PDGF-C mediated neuroprotection against HIV-1 Tat in human neuroblastoma cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat associates with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) in rat cerebellar granule neurons and increases GSK-3beta activity, suggesting dysregulation of this enzyme could contribute to HIV-induced neuronal apoptosis PubMed
Vpr vpr Treatment of cultured dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of TrKA and pGSK3beta/GSK3beta proteins and pre-treatment with NGF inhibits this Vpr-induced downregulation of TrKA and pGSK3beta/GSK3beta PubMed
Vpu vpu In vitro protein-protein interaction analysis identifies a Vpu-binding host protein glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3B) PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystemFollowing activation, AKT can phosphorylate an array of target proteins in the cytoplasm, many of which are involved in cell survival control. Phosphorylation of TSC2 feeds positively to the TOR kina...
  • AMER1 mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AMER1 mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAMER1/WTX is a component of the destruction complex that interacts directly with beta-catenin through its C-terminal half. Depletion of AMER1 through siRNA stabilizes cellular beta-catenin levels an...
  • APC truncation mutants have impaired AXIN binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC truncation mutants have impaired AXIN binding, organism-specific biosystemMutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene are common in colorectal and other cancers and cluster in the central mutation cluster region (MCR) of the gene (Miyoshi et al, 1992; Nagase and Nakamura, ...
  • AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAlterations in AXIN1 have been detected in a number of different cancers including liver and colorectal cancer and medullablastoma, among others (reviewed in Salahshor and Woodgett, 2005). Missense ...
  • AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemAXIN1 and AXIN2 are critical scaffolding proteins of the beta-catenin destruction complex and make protein-protein interactions with several of the other complex components including APC, GSK3, CK1 a...
  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Alzheimer's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alzheimer's disease, organism-specific biosystemAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-b...
  • Alzheimer's disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alzheimer's disease, conserved biosystemAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-b...
  • Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway displays current genes, proteolytic events and other processes associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This pathway was adapted from KEGG on 10/7/2011. Note: mitochondria...
  • Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Androgen receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAndrogens, mainly testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play significant role in the growth and development of the male reproductive organs. These steroid hormones bring about their biolo...
  • Angiopoietin Like Protein 8 Regulatory Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Angiopoietin Like Protein 8 Regulatory Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe hepatic ANGPTL8 (Angiopoietin Like Protein 8) regulatory pathway represents an up-to-date curated interactive pathway for all of the interactions from the known regulators of ANGPTL8 and updated ...
  • Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 8 of "Mapping drug physico-chemical features to pathway activity reveals molecular networks linked to toxicity outcome."(See bibliography). These 3 pathways demonstr...
  • Aurora A signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Aurora A signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Aurora A signaling
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
  • Axon guidance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Axon guidance, conserved biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
  • B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe functional B-cell receptor is a multi-protein complex consisting of an antigen binding subunit and a signaling subunit. The antigen binding subunit is the membrane bound immunoglobulin and the si...
  • B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
  • B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
  • B-WICH complex positively regulates rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    B-WICH complex positively regulates rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystemThe B-WICH complex is a large 3 Mdalton complex containing SMARCA5 (SNF2H), BAZ1B (WSTF), ERCC6 (CSB), MYO1C (Nuclear myosin 1c) (Cavellan et al. 2006, Percipalle et al. 2006, Vintermist et al. 2001,...
  • BMP receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    BMP receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    BMP receptor signaling
  • Basal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Basal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemCancer of the skin is the most common cancer in Caucasians and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) account for 90% of all skin cancers. The vast majority of BCC cases are sporadic, though there is a rare fam...
  • Basal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Basal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemCancer of the skin is the most common cancer in Caucasians and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) account for 90% of all skin cancers. The vast majority of BCC cases are sporadic, though there is a rare fam...
  • Beta-catenin phosphorylation cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Beta-catenin phosphorylation cascade, organism-specific biosystemDegradation of beta-catenin is initiated following amino-terminal serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of B-catenin at S45 by CK1 alpha primes the subsequent sequential GSK-3-mediated p...
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for growth, differentiation, plasticity, and survival of neurons. BDNF is also required for processes such as energy metabolism, b...
  • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, conserved biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • C-MYC pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    C-MYC pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    C-MYC pathway
  • CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    CDC42 signaling events
  • CRMPs in Sema3A signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CRMPs in Sema3A signaling, organism-specific biosystemCRMPs are a small family of plexinA-interacting cytosolic phosphoproteins identified as mediators of Sema3A signaling and neuronal differentiation. After Sema3A activation Plexin-A bound CRMP's under...
  • Canonical Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Canonical Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Canonical Wnt signaling pathway
  • Cardiac Hypertrophic Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cardiac Hypertrophic Response, organism-specific biosystemIntegrated schematic of the more extensively characterized intracellular signal-transduction pathways that coordinate the cardiac hypertrophic response. During development and in response to physiolo...
  • Cardiac Progenitor Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cardiac Progenitor Differentiation, organism-specific biosystemFactors involved in the induction of cardiac differentiation in vitro and in vivo. This model was based on the below two review articles.
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a c...
  • Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cell cycle, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, conserved biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cellular response to heat stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular response to heat stress, organism-specific biosystemIn response to exposure to elevated temperature and certain other proteotoxic stimuli (e.g., hypoxia, free radicals) cells activate a number of cytoprotective mechanisms known collectively as "heat s...
  • Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystemCells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissu...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystemThis is currently not a pathway but a list of circadian rhythm related genes and proteins. The source for this information is the gene ontology. The genes and proteins were filtered for "circadian rh...
  • Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem
    Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt
  • Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
  • Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
  • Constitutive Signaling by AKT1 E17K in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Constitutive Signaling by AKT1 E17K in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemWhile AKT1 gene copy number, expression level and phosphorylation are often increased in cancer, only one low frequency point mutation has been repeatedly reported in cancer and functionally studied....
  • Copper homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Copper homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemCopper is a redox-active transition metal and an essential trace element for life. It is a catalytic cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in critical biological processes (eg. detoxyfication by oxy...
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide secreted abundantly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the central nervous system ...
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystemThis is the second pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and TP53) which are connected with the first DNA damage response pathway. In...
  • Degradation of GLI2 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Degradation of GLI2 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystemThe primary role of the GLI2 protein is as an activator of Hh-dependent signaling upon pathway stimulation; in the absence of Hh ligand, a small fraction of GLI2 appears to be processed to a represso...
  • Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemThe beta-catenin destruction complex plays a key role in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt signaling, this complex controls the levels of cytoplamic beta-catenin. Beta-cateni...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to the membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to the membrane, organism-specific biosystemUpon stimulation with WNT ligand, AXIN and GSK3beta are recruited to the plasma membrane through interaction with DVL (Tamai et al, 2004; Mao et al, 2001; reviewed in He et al, 2004). Polymerization...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
  • EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, organism-specific biosystemEGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which ...
  • EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, conserved biosystemEGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which ...
  • Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
  • Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
  • Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, organism-specific biosystemEpigenetic processes regulate gene expression by modulating the frequency, rate, or extent of gene expression in a mitotically or meiotically heritable way that does not entail a change in the DNA se...
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • ErbB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    ErbB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB protein family or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family is a family of four structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases. Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with ...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • Factors and pathways affecting insulin-like growth factor (IGF1)-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Factors and pathways affecting insulin-like growth factor (IGF1)-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe signaling pathway that involves insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and a variety of other components that affect the pathway, plays an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth...
  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
  • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystemGAB1 is recruited to the activated EGFR indirectly, through GRB2. GAB1 acts as an adaptor protein that enables formation of an active PIK3, through recruitment of PIK3 regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (also...
  • GLI3 is processed to GLI3R by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GLI3 is processed to GLI3R by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystemIn the absence of Hh signaling, the majority of full-length GLI3 is partially processed by the proteasome to a shorter form that serves as the principal repressor of Hh target genes (Wang et al, 2000...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
  • Glycogen Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Glycogen Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlycogen is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues. Within skeletal muscle and liver glucose is stored as glycogen. In the liver, glycogen synthesis and degradation are regulated to maint...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Hedgehog 'off' state, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hedgehog 'off' state, organism-specific biosystemHedgehog is a secreted morphogen that has evolutionarily conserved roles in body organization by regulating the activity of the Ci/Gli transcription factor family. In Drosophila in the absence of Hh ...
  • Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins
  • Hedgehog signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hedgehog signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has numerous roles in the control of cell proliferation, tissue patterning, stem cell maintenance and development. The primary cilium is an important center for tr...
  • Hedgehog signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hedgehog signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has numerous roles in the control of cell proliferation, tissue patterning, stem cell maintenance and development. The primary cilium is an important center for tr...
  • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
  • Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
  • IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    IL-17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
  • IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    IL-17 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. IL-17A, the hallmark cytokine of the newly defi...
  • IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 5 (IL-5) ligand belongs to the cytokine superfamily. IL-5 is a glycoprotein which belongs to the cytokine superfamily. It possesses the four helical bundle motifs that is conserved among ...
  • IL-6 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-6 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with important role in immune regulation, hematopoiesis, inflammation and oncogenesis. IL-6-type cytokines exert their action via the signal transducer gp130 that assoc...
  • IL-7 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-7 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-7 (IL-7) was discovered in the year 1988 as a factor that enhanced the growth of murine B-cell precursors in bone marrow culture system. It was also known as lymphopoietin 1and pre-B cell...
  • IL17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 17 is a family of cytokines that acts as potent mediators in delayed-type reactions by increasing chemokine production in various tissues to recruit monocytes and neutrophils to the site ...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
  • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem
    Insulin-mediated glucose transport
  • LKB1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    LKB1 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    LKB1 signaling events
  • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
    LPA receptor mediated events
  • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
  • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Melatonin metabolism and effects, organism-specific biosystemMelatonin is an important regulator of circadian rythmus and influences also insulin secretion, immune function, retinal function and neuroprotection. The synthesis starts with the amino acid tryptop...
  • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
  • Misspliced GSK3beta mutants stabilize beta-catenin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Misspliced GSK3beta mutants stabilize beta-catenin, organism-specific biosystemGSK3beta is subject to in-frame missplicing in CML stem cells resulting in the production of mutant protein that lacks the AXIN and FRAT binding domains. Cells containing this mutant GSK3beta show e...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Neural Crest Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Neural Crest Differentiation, organism-specific biosystemGene regulatory network model of cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) development, adaped from PMID: 19575671. Most interactions in the model are proposed to regulate transcription of core factors involv...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Notch Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Notch Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Notch pathway is an evolutionally conserved signaling pathway which plays an important role in diverse developmental and physiological processes. These include cell-fate determination, tissue pat...
  • PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and therapeutic opportunities, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and therapeutic opportunities, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on figure 1 from Merritt et al. (See Bibliography). The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to have a significant correlation with the development of castration-resis...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemClass IA PI3K is a heterodimer of a p85 regulatory subunit (encoded by PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) and a p110 catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). In the absence of activating signa...
  • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
  • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Positive epigenetic regulation of rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Positive epigenetic regulation of rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystemTranscription of rRNA genes is controlled by epigenetic activation and repression (reviewed in Percipalle and Farrants 2006, McStay and Grummt 2008, Goodfellow and Zomerdijk 2012, Grummt and Langst 2...
  • Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling
  • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Reelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Reelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Reelin signaling pathway
  • Regulation of Androgen receptor activity, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of Androgen receptor activity, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of Androgen receptor activity
  • Regulation of Apoptosis by Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of Apoptosis by Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 8 of "Parathyroid hormone-related protein regulates cell survival pathways via integrin alpha6beta4-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling....
  • Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response, organism-specific biosystemThe ability of HSF1 to respond to cellular stresses is under negative regulation by chaperones, modulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, post-translational modifications and transition from monomer...
  • Regulation of Wnt/B-catenin Signaling by Small Molecule Compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of Wnt/B-catenin Signaling by Small Molecule Compounds, organism-specific biosystemThe Wnt/B-catenin pathway begins with Wnt family activation by MBOAT that allows Wnt proteins to translocate out of a cell and bind to FZD and LRP to form a complex. This complex stimulates B-catenin...
  • Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
    Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes
  • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
  • S33 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S33 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS33 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear localization of the protein and enhanced WNT signaling (Groen et al, 2008; Nhieu et al, 1999;...
  • S37 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S37 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS37 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and stabilize the protein, resulting in enhanced WNT pathway signaling (Nhieu et al, 1999; Clements et al, 2002; reviewed in Polakis,...
  • S45 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S45 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS45 mutants of beta-catenin have been identified in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas, soft tissue cancer and Wilms Tumors, among others (reviewed in Polakis, 2000). These mutations abolish th...
  • Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystemSemaphorins are a large family of cell surface and secreted guidance molecules divided into eight classes on the basis of their structures. They all have an N-terminal conserved sema domain. Semaphor...
  • Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystemHedgehog (Hh) is a secreted morphogen that regulates developmental processes in vertebrates including limb bud formation, neural tube patterning, cell growth and differentiation (reviewed in Hui and ...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe WNT signaling pathway has been linked with cancer ever since the identification of the first WNT as a gene activated by integration of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in virally-induced br...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit)
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    T-Cell Receptor and Co-stimulatory Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe activation and translocation of transcription factors NFAT, AP-1 and NF-kappa-B via the co-stimulatory signaling cascade triggered by MHC peptide, B7 proteins and PD-L1. The activation of NFAT in...
  • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 4 of "A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus au...
  • T41 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    T41 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemT41 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of the protein (Moreno-Bueno et al, 2002; Taniguchi et al, 2002; reviewed in Pol...
  • TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem19 WNT ligands and 10 FZD receptors have been identified in human cells; interactions amongst these ligands and receptors vary in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and lead to activation of ...
  • TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
  • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
  • Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma, organism-specific biosystem
    Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma
  • Truncations of AMER1 destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Truncations of AMER1 destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAMER1/WTX is a known component of the destruction complex and interacts directly with beta-catenin through the C-terminal half (Major et al, 2007). siRNA depletion of AMER1 in mammalian cells stabil...
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway Netpath, organism-specific biosystemWNT signal, through the canonical pathway, controls cell fate determination and through the non-canonical pathway controls cell movement and tissue polarity. The name "wnt" is a fusion of two terms, ...
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was adapted from several resources and is designed to provide a theoretical frame-work for examining Wnt signaling and interacting components in the context of embryonic stem-cell plurip...
  • Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Wnt signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • Wnt/beta-catenin Signaling Pathway in Leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Wnt/beta-catenin Signaling Pathway in Leukemia, organism-specific biosystemThe Wnt/Beta-catenin pathway mediates the transcription of proteins important for maintenance and growth of hematopoietic stem cells. The inhibition of Wnt leads to protein degradation through Beta-C...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
  • p53 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    p53 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    p53 pathway
  • phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemMutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene have been identified in a number of human cancers (Morin et al, 1997; Rubinfeld et al, 1997; reviewed in Polakis, 2000; Polakis, 2007). These mutations g...
  • truncated APC mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    truncated APC mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAPC is a large and central component of the destruction complex, which limits signaling in the absence of WNT ligand by promoting the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of beta-catenin. APC interacts wi...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NF-kappaB binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
beta-catenin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
p53 binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protease binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase A catalytic subunit binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
tau-protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ER overload response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Wnt signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
beta-catenin destruction complex assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
canonical Wnt signaling pathway IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
canonical Wnt signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
canonical Wnt signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to interleukin-3 ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
chemical synaptic transmission, postsynaptic NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
circadian rhythm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
dopamine receptor signaling pathway NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
epithelial to mesenchymal transition IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
glycogen metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
hippocampus development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
intracellular signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intracellular signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of NFAT protein import into nucleus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of dopaminergic neuron differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein complex assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein localization to nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of GTPase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell-matrix adhesion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of mitochondrion organization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of neuron death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein catabolic process IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein export from nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein autophosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cellular response to heat TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of microtubule-based process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
superior temporal gyrus development IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Wnt signalosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
beta-catenin destruction complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
beta-catenin destruction complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
postsynapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
Names
GSK-3 beta
GSK3beta isoform
serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3B
NP_001139628.1
NP_002084.2
XP_006713673.1
XP_006713674.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012922.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..277465
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001146156.1NP_001139628.1  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001139628.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) is missing an in-frame coding exon compared to variant 1, resulting in a shorter isoform (2) lacking a 13 aa segment compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069444, BC012760, CA312249, DA477189
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54628.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P49841
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q6FI27
    Related
    ENSP00000264235.8, OTTHUMP00000165239, ENST00000264235.12, OTTHUMT00000258240
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51343
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
    pfam00069
    Location:56340
    Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
  2. NM_002093.3NP_002084.2  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002084.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC069444, BC000251, BC012760, CA312249, DA477189
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2996.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P49841
    Related
    ENSP00000324806.5, OTTHUMP00000165240, ENST00000316626.5, OTTHUMT00000258241
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51356
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
    pfam00069
    Location:56353
    Pkinase; Protein kinase domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Range
    119821321..120094417 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006713611.2XP_006713674.1  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform X2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006713674.1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51343
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
    pfam00069
    Location:56340
    Pkinase; Protein kinase domain
  2. XM_006713610.2XP_006713673.1  glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006713673.1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd14137
    Location:51356
    STKc_GSK3; The catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
    pfam00069
    Location:56353
    Pkinase; Protein kinase domain

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018914.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    119504331..119776722 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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