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GRM2 glutamate metabotropic receptor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2912, updated on 23-Nov-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
GRM2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glutamate metabotropic receptor 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4594
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000164082 MIM:604099
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GLUR2; mGlu2; GPRC1B; MGLUR2
Summary
L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]
Expression
Biased expression in testis (RPKM 2.8), brain (RPKM 2.2) and 4 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See GRM2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
3p21.2
Exon count:
8
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20211119 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 3 NC_000003.12 (51707068..51718616)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (51741084..51752629)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RAD54 like 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377086 Neighboring gene testis expressed 264, ER-phagy receptor Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 132 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377087 Neighboring gene IQ motif containing F6 Neighboring gene IQ motif containing F4, pseudogene

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables G protein-coupled receptor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables adenylate cyclase inhibiting G protein-coupled glutamate receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables calcium channel regulator activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables glutamate receptor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables scaffold protein binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in G protein-coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in behavioral response to nicotine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in chemical synaptic transmission IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in glutamate homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in glutamate secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of dopamine secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in regulation of glutamate secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
acts_upstream_of_or_within regulation of protein kinase B signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to cocaine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in astrocyte projection ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
located_in axon ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
located_in dendrite IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
is_active_in integral component of plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in integral component of postsynaptic membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in presynaptic membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
metabotropic glutamate receptor 2
Names
glutamate receptor homolog
glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000839.5NP_000830.2  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000830.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC099050, AK315816, BC041447, DA528713
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2834.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14416
    Related
    ENSP00000378492.3, ENST00000395052.8
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    cd06375
    Location:30480
    PBP1_mGluR_groupII; Ligand binding domain of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor
    pfam00003
    Location:579816
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:60456
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:498545
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
  2. NM_001349116.2NP_001336045.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform c

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (c) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC099050
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam07562
    Location:120168
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cd14964
    Location:189213
    7tm_GPCRs; TM helix 1 [structural motif]
    cl10011
    Location:1102
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    cl28897
    Location:188441
    7tm_GPCRs; seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor superfamily
  3. NM_001349117.2NP_001336046.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform d

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) contains an alternate internal exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (d) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC099050, AK313056, BC041447, DA528713
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam07562
    Location:99149
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cd14964
    Location:169194
    7tm_GPCRs; TM helix 1 [structural motif]
    cl10011
    Location:2983
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_type1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
    cl28897
    Location:169422
    7tm_GPCRs; seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor superfamily

RNA

  1. NR_146059.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks two alternate exons compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the predicted protein does not meet RefSeq quality criteria.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC099050, BC041447, DA528713
    Related
    ENST00000475478.5

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20211119

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    51707068..51718616
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011533635.1XP_011531937.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:547784
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:60433
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:466513
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cl10011
    Location:30448
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  2. XM_011533636.1XP_011531938.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X3

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:397634
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam07562
    Location:316363
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cl10011
    Location:30298
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  3. XM_017006271.1XP_016861760.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14416
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    cd06375
    Location:30480
    PBP1_mGluR_groupII; Ligand binding domain of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor
    pfam00003
    Location:579816
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:60456
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:498545
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
  4. XM_011533642.1XP_011531944.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X5

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06375
    Location:30470
    PBP1_mGluR_groupII; Ligand binding domain of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor
    pfam01094
    Location:60456
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
  5. XM_024453490.1XP_024309258.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X7

    Related
    ENSP00000296479.5, ENST00000296479.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl10011
    Location:30429
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  6. XM_011533637.1XP_011531939.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531939.1

    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:385622
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:1262
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:304351
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cl10011
    Location:1286
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  7. XM_011533643.1XP_011531945.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 isoform X6

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:147384
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam07562
    Location:69113
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
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