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GNRH1 gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2796, updated on 5-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
GNRH1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
gonadotropin releasing hormone 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4419
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000147437 MIM:152760
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GRH; GNRH; LHRH; LNRH
Summary
This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate a peptide that is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) family of peptides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which is secreted and then cleaved to generate gonadoliberin-1 and GnRH-associated peptide 1. Gonadoliberin-1 stimulates the release of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, which are important for reproduction. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in skin (RPKM 3.5), lymph node (RPKM 1.1) and 23 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GNRH1 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
8p21.2
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 8 NC_000008.11 (25419258..25425040, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (25276774..25282556, complement)

Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene dedicator of cytokinesis 5 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379331 Neighboring gene microRNA 6876 Neighboring gene potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 Neighboring gene cell division cycle associated 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986933 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379333

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe class A (rhodopsin-like) GPCRs that bind to hormone ligands are annotated here. The hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hu...
  • Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
aging IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
estrous cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
female pregnancy IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
male sex determination IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
multicellular organism development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of immature T cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of neuron migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of ovarian follicle development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
reproduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to corticosteroid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to ethanol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to potassium ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to prolactin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to prostaglandin E IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to testosterone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi-associated vesicle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
axon terminus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytoplasmic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
dendrite IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neurosecretory vesicle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
perikaryon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
progonadoliberin-1
Names
GnRH-associated peptide 1
gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone)
leuteinizing-releasing hormone
luliberin I
prolactin release-inhibiting factor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_016457.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..10783
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000825.3NP_000816.4  progonadoliberin-1 isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000816.4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1). This isoform (1) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AL047164, BC067290, CB243067
    Related
    ENSP00000276414.4, ENST00000276414.4
  2. NM_001083111.2NP_001076580.1  progonadoliberin-1 isoform 2 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001076580.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs at the 5' end compared to variant 1, which results in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream start codon, and an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC067290, CB243067, M12578
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43725.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01148
    Related
    ENSP00000391280.2, ENST00000421054.6

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    25419258..25425040 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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