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GCG glucagon [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2641, updated on 21-Jan-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
GCGprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glucagonprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4191
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000115263 MIM:138030
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GLP1; GLP2; GRPP; GLP-1
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Biased expression in pancreas (RPKM 204.8), small intestine (RPKM 57.7) and 2 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GCG in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2q24.2
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (162142882..162152247, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (162999379..163008914, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8A pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene DPP4 divergent transcript Neighboring gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929532 Neighboring gene GCG promoter region Neighboring gene fibroblast activation protein alpha Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373724

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
glucagon receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to glucagon stimulus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
feeding behavior TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of execution phase of apoptosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of calcium ion import IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of gluconeogenesis by positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase A signaling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of insulin secretion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
secretory granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
glucagon
Names
glicentin-related polypeptide
glucagon-like peptide 1
glucagon-like peptide 2
preproglucagon

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002054.5NP_002045.1  glucagon preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002045.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC005278, CB069629
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS46439.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01275
    Related
    ENSP00000387662.2, ENST00000418842.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00123
    Location:5379
    Hormone_2; Peptide hormone

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    162142882..162152247 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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