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Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.

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Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.

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Chapter 21Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Created: ; Last Update: August 10, 2016.

Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

The general format for a reference to a computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk, including punctuation:

Illustration of the general format for a reference to a computer program
on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk.

Examples of Citations to Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

A computer program, also known as software, is a collection or organized list of instructions for a computer to enable it to process data, perform tasks, and/or solve problems. In medicine, computer programs are often used to instruct on techniques and to assist in performing a variety of tasks, such as organizing patient data.

A computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk is cited in a way similar to a book, but with these exceptions:

  • The type of medium (CD-ROM, DVD, disk) is placed in square brackets after the title because special equipment is needed to view/use programs.
  • Extent (pagination) is given in terms of the number and type of physical pieces, such as 1 DVD or 2 CD-ROMs.
  • Physical description such as color and size may be added after the extent.
  • System requirements such as the names and versions of any required software and hardware may be included as a note.

The authoritative source for information to use in a citation for a computer program is, in order of preference: the opening screen(s); the face of the CD-ROM, DVD, or disk; the jewel case (carrying case); and accompanying print documentation.

Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Computer Programs (Software) on the Internet.

Citation Rules with Examples for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.

Author/Editor (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Date of Update/Revision (R) | Extent (Pagination) (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)

Author/Editor for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Author/Editor

  • List names in the order they appear on the opening screens, the jewel case (carrying case), or in accompanying material
  • Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author/editor
  • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
  • Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
  • Give all authors/editors, regardless of the number
  • Separate author/editor names from each other by a comma and a space
  • If there are no authors, only editors, follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; see Editor and other Secondary Authors below if there are authors and editors
  • End author/editor information with a period

Specific Rules for Author/Editor

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Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.

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Other surname rules.

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Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.

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Degrees, titles, and honors before or after a personal name.

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Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.

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Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).

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Non-English words for editor.

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Organizations as author.

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No author can be found.

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Options for author names.

Author Affiliation for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Author Affiliation

  • Enter the affiliation of all authors or only the first author
  • Begin with the department and name of the institution, followed by city and state/Canadian province/country
  • Use commas to separate parts of the address
  • Place the address in parentheses, such as (Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
  • Separate the affiliation from its author by a space
  • Follow the affiliation with a comma placed outside the closing parenthesis, unless the affiliation is for the last author, then use a period

Specific Rules for Author Affiliation

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Abbreviations in affiliations.

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E-mail address included.

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Organizational names for affiliations not in English.

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Names for cities and countries not in English.

Title for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Title

  • Enter the program title as it appears on the opening screens, in the original language
  • Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
  • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
  • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
  • End a title with a space

Specific Rules for Title

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Titles not in English.

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Titles in more than one language.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.

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No title can be found.

Content Type for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Content Type

  • A content type alerts the user that the reference is not to a standard book but to a computer program
  • Begin content type information with a left square bracket
  • Enter the words "computer program on"
  • End content type with space and the Type of Medium (below)

Type of Medium for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Type of Medium

  • Indicate the type of medium (CD-ROM, DVD, disc, etc.) following the title (and Content Type, if present)
  • Place the name of the medium in square brackets and end with a period, such as "[DVD]."
  • Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below

Specific Rules for Type of Medium

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Both a content type and a type of medium.

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More than one type of medium.

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Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.

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Titles not in English.

Edition for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Edition

  • Indicate the edition/version being cited when a program is published in more than one edition or version
  • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below)
  • Capitalize only the first word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives
  • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. For example: second becomes 2nd and III becomes 3rd.
  • End the edition statement with a period
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Abbreviation rules for editions.

Specific Rules for Edition

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Non-English words for editions.

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First editions.

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Both an edition and a version.

Editor and other Secondary Authors for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

  • A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Examples include editors, producers, translators, and illustrators.
  • Place the names of secondary authors after the title, following any Content Type or Type of Medium
  • Use the same rules for the format of names given in Author above
  • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators, etc.
  • End secondary author information with a period
  • If there is no author, move secondary authors such as editors and translators (but not producers) to the author position in the reference

Specific Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors

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More than one type of secondary author.

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Secondary author performing more than one role.

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Non-English names for secondary authors.

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Organization as editor or other secondary author.

Place of Publication for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Place of Publication

  • Place is defined as the city where the program was published
  • Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
  • Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as London (ON) and London (England)
  • Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wein
  • End place information with a colon

Specific Rules for Place of Publication

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Non-US cities.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple places of publication.

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No place of publication can be found.

Publisher for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Publisher

  • Give the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found
  • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. For example, "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." may become simply "Wiley".
  • When a division or other subsidiary part of a publisher appears in the publication, enter the publisher name first. For example: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.
  • End publisher information with a semicolon

Specific Rules for Publisher

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Abbreviated words in publisher names.

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Non-English names for publishers.

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Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.

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Joint publication.

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Multiple publishers.

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No publisher can be found.

Date of Publication for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Date of Publication

  • Always give the year of publication
  • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
  • Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • End date of publication information with a period unless a Date of Update/Revision is included, then use a space

Specific Rules for Date of Publication

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Multiple years of publication.

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Date of publication and date of copyright.

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No date of publication, but a date of copyright.

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No date of publication or copyright can be found.

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Options for date of publication.

Date of Update/Revision for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Date of Update/Revision

  • A program may be updated or otherwise revised after the date of publication
  • Use whatever wording for update/revision is found, such as updated, revised, or modified
  • Enter date information in the format year month day, such as updated 2006 Oct 2
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan
  • Place all update/revision information in square brackets, such as [updated 2006 Oct 2]
  • End date of update/revision with a period placed outside the closing bracket

Specific Rules for Date of Update/Revision

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Non-English names for months.

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Seasons instead of months.

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Both a date of update and a date of revision.

Extent (Pagination) for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Extent (Pagination)

  • Give the total number of physical pieces on which the program appears
  • Follow the number with the name of the medium, such as 2 CD-ROMs or 4 computer disks
  • End extent information with a period unless physical description is included, then use a colon

Specific Rules for Extent (Pagination)

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More than one type of medium.

Physical Description for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Physical Description

  • Give information on the physical characteristics of the program, such as 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Specific Rules for Physical Description

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Language for describing physical characteristics.

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More than one type of medium.

Series for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Series

  • Begin with the name of the series
  • Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns
  • Follow the name with any numbers provided. For example, vol. 3 for a volume or no. 12 for an issue number.
  • Separate the title and the number by a semicolon and a space
  • Place series information in parentheses
  • End series information with a period placed outside the closing parenthesis

Specific Rules for Series

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Series editor's name provided.

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Multiple series.

Language for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (required)

General Rules for Language

  • Give the language of publication if not English
  • Capitalize the language name
  • Follow the language name with a period

Specific Rules for Language

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Programs appearing in more than one language.

Notes for Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk (optional)

General Rules for Notes

  • Notes is a collective term for any further information given after the citation
  • Complete sentences are not required
  • Be brief

Specific Rules for Notes

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System requirements.

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Other types of material to include in notes.

Examples of Citations to Computer Programs on CD-ROM, DVD, or Disk

1. Standard citation to a computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk

Pearl ML, Steinmann SP, Hawkins RJ, editors. The athlete's shoulder [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Nelson KN. Comprehensive body composition software [disk]. Release 1.0 for DOS. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, c1997. 1 computer disk: color, 3 1/2 in.

with optional content type

Pearl ML, Steinmann SP, Hawkins RJ, editors. The athlete's shoulder [computer program on DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [computer program on CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Nelson KN. Comprehensive body composition software [computer program on disk]. Release 1.0 for DOS. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, c1997. 1 computer disk: color, 3 1/2 in.

2. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with many authors

McCall RE, Tankersley CM, Behrens JA, Piper KE, Albay D, Chiang S, Matheson L, Davis D, Gratzer M, Orkand A, Astion M. PhlebotomyTUTOR: medical educational software [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott; c1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

3. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional limit to the number of authors

McCall RE, Tankersley CM, Behrens JA, et al. PhlebotomyTUTOR: medical educational software [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott; c1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

or

McCall RE, Tankersley CM, Behrens JA, and others. PhlebotomyTUTOR: medical educational software [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott; c1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

4. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk showing authors/editors with optional full first names

Schwid, Howard A. Critical care simulator 2001: improve your response to anesthetic emergencies [CD-ROM]. Issaquah (WA): Anesoft Corporation; c1995-2001. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Pearl, Michael L.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Hawkins, Richard J., editors. The athlete's shoulder [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

5. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with editor(s) when there is no author

Pearl ML, Steinmann SP, Hawkins RJ, editors. The athlete's shoulder [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2004. 2 DVDs: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

6. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with organization as author/editor

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. The total heart: the ultimate interactive guide to heart health [CD-ROM]. PC 1.1a version. Eagan (MN): IVI Pub.; 1993. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.

National Toxicology Program (US). National Toxicology Program's GlovES+: an expert system for selecting protective clothing against hazardous chemicals [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; 1992. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2; 1 computer disk: 5 1/2 in.

7. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with no authors or editors

Bloodborne pathogens: a sharper image [DVD]. Virginia Beach (VA): Coastal Training Technologies Corp.; 2005. 1 DVD: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Sport care [CD-ROM]. Release 1.0. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; c2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user manual.

8. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with author affiliation included

Argyle B (Cottonwood Hospital Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT). Chest pain simulator [disk]. Version 2.3. Alpine (UT): Mad Scientist Software; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.

9. Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with subtitle

Dreher MA, Caputi L. ChartSmart II: mastering patient documentation [CD-ROM]. Windows release. Glen Ellyn (IL): College of DuPage, Multimedia Center; c1998. 6 CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.

10. Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with special characters

A*L*S paramedic study helper [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user guide.

National Toxicology Program (US). National Toxicology Program's GlovES+: an expert system for selecting protective clothing against hazardous chemicals [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; 1992. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2; 1 computer disk: 5 1/2 in.

11. Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in a language other than English

Leridon H. Pyramides animees: un programme de projections demographiques [disk]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. French.

Nachreiner F, Grzech-Sukalo H, Hanecke K, Qin L, Dieckmann P, Eden J, Lochmann R. Arbeitszeit ergonomisch gestalten: eine Software zur Erstellung von Schichtplanen [CD-ROM]. 2. aktualisierte Aufl. Dortmund (Germany): Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 handbook. German.

Schwid HA, O'Donnell D. Simulador de terapia intensiva y medicina de urgencia [disk]. Version 1.0. [Mexico City]: Cientifica Medica Latinoamericana; 1996. 4 computer disks: sound, color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. Spanish.

with translation included

Leridon H. Pyramides animees: un programme de projections demographiques [Animated population pyramids: a program of population projections] [disk]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. French.

12. Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in two equal languages

SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004 Feb. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish.

13. Computer program title on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk in more than one medium

Signal 18 EMT-basic study helper [CD-ROM + disk]. New version 4.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2005. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.; 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's guide.

14. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with an edition or version

Physician's fee schedule software [CD-ROM]. Version 5.1. [place unknown]: Family Care Medical Centers; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Iliad 4.5: diagnostic and reference tool for physicians and medical professionals [CD-ROM]. Version 4.5 for Windows. Salt Lake City (UT): Applied Medical Informatics; 1996. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.

Dreher MA, Caputi L. ChartSmart II: mastering patient documentation [CD-ROM]. Windows release. Glen Ellyn (IL): College of DuPage, Multimedia Center; c1998. 6 CD-ROMs: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.

Fire safety [disk]. Version 1 for Windows. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; c1997. 10 computer disks: color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.

Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Sport care [CD-ROM]. Release 1.0. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; c2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user manual.

Nelson KN. Comprehensive body composition software [disk]. Release 1.0 for DOS. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, c1997. 1 computer disk: color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.

Nachreiner F, Grzech-Sukalo H, Hanecke K, Qin L, Dieckmann P, Eden J, Lochmann R. Arbeitszeit ergonomisch gestalten: eine Software zur Erstellung von Schichtplanen [CD-ROM]. 2. aktualisierte Aufl. Dortmund (Germany): Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 handbook. German.

15. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with an edition and a version

MD-challenger: clinical reference & educational software for pediatric acute & emergent care [disk]. Pediatrics ed.; DOS version 2.1. Memphis (TN): Challenger Corporation; c1994. 2 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.

16. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with secondary author(s)

Reeder MM. Gamuts in radiology: an expert system for radiologists [CD-ROM]. Medical Interactive, producer. New York: Springer-Verlag; c1997. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.

SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish.

17. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with well-known place of publication

A-ware: multilingual simulation software for anaesthesiology [CD-ROM]. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Leridon H. Pyramides animees: un programme de projections demographiques [disk]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. French.

18. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with geographic qualifier added to place of publication for clarity

Nachreiner F, Grzech-Sukalo H, Hanecke K, Qin L, Dieckmann P, Eden J, Lochmann R. Arbeitszeit ergonomisch gestalten: eine Software zur Erstellung von Schichtplanen [CD-ROM]. 2. aktualisierte Aufl. Dortmund (Germany): Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 handbook. German.

Argyle B. Chest pain simulator [disk]. Version 2.3. Alpine (UT): Mad Scientist Software; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.

19. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with place of publication inferred

Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Schwid HA, O'Donnell D. Simulador de terapia intensiva y medicina de urgencia [disk]. Version 1.0. [Mexico City]: Cientifica Medica Latinoamericana; 1996. 4 computer disks: sound, color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. Spanish.

20. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with no place of publication found

Physician's fee schedule software [CD-ROM]. Version 5.1. [place unknown]: Family Care Medical Centers; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Bergeron BP. Heartlab: clinical cardiology ausculatory simulation [disk]. [place unknown]: B.P. Bergeron; c1988. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide.

21. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk showing publisher with subsidiary department/division

Medical statistics [disk]. Kansas City (MO): University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Evaluation Resource Center; 1988. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.

Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

22. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with government agency or other national body as publisher

HAZUS-MH: FEMA's software program for estimating potential losses from disasters [DVD]. Version 1.1. [Washington]: Federal Emergency Management Agency (US); 2005. 7 DVDs: color, 4 3/4 in.

ASISTS 2001: Automated Safety Incident Surveillance Tracking System; computer based training [CD-ROM]. [Washington]: Department of Veterans Affairs (US), OI National Training & Education Office; 2001. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

23. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with joint publishers

Fire safety [disk]. Version 1 for Windows. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; c1997. 10 computer disks: color, 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual. Joint publication of the Florida Hospital Association Information Services.

McCall RE, Tankersley CM, Behrens JA, Piper KE, Albay D, Chiang S, Matheson L, Davis D, Gratzer M, Orkand A, Astion M. PhlebotomyTUTOR: medical educational software [CD-ROM]. Version 1.0. Hagerstown (MD): Lippincott; c1998. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Joint publication of the Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center.

24. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with standard date of publication

Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's manual.

25. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with month included in date of publication

SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004 Feb. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish.

Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in.

26. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with date range

Starkey C. ALFIE: injury reporting system [disk]. Version 3.00. Gardner (KS): Cramer Products, Inc.; 1985-1987. 2 computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.

Schwid HA. Critical care simulator 2001: improve your response to anesthetic emergencies [CD-ROM]. Issaquah (WA): Anesoft Corporation; c1995-2001. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

27. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with date of copyright instead of date of publication

Law M, King G, Russell D, Stewart D, Hurley P, Bosch E. All about outcomes: an educational program to help you understand, evaluate, and choose adult outcome measures [CD-ROM]. Thorofare (NJ): SLACK Incorporated; c2001. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

28. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with extent and physical description

A-ware: multilingual simulation software for anaesthesiology [CD-ROM]. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2000. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.

Starkey C. ALFIE: injury reporting system [disk]. Version 3.00. Gardner (KS): Cramer Products, Inc.; 1985-1987. 2 computer disks: 5 1/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual.

Fire safety [disk]. Version 1 for Windows. Oakbrook Terrace (IL): Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; c1997. 10 computer disks: color, 3 1/2 in.

National Toxicology Program (US). National Toxicology Program's GlovES+: an expert system for selecting protective clothing against hazardous chemicals [disk]. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; 1992. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2; 1 computer disk: 5 1/2 in.

Signal 18 EMT-basic study helper [CD-ROM + disk]. New version 4.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2005. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.; 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's guide.

29. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with a series

Medical statistics [disk]. Kansas City (MO): University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Evaluation Resource Center; 1988. 4 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. (UMKC software series). Accompanied by: 1 manual.

Leridon H. Pyramides animees: un programme de projections demographiques [disk]. Paris: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques; 1997. 1 computer disk: 3 1/2 in. (Methodes et savoirs; no. 1). Accompanied by: 1 guide. French.

30. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with optional system requirements

Physician's fee schedule software [CD-ROM]. Version 5.1. [place unknown]: Family Care Medical Centers; 2004. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. System Requirements: Pentium level computer with Microsoft Windows 98 or newer; Microsoft Excel 2000 or newer or Lotus 1-2-3 release 9/millennium edition or newer; CD drive.

Meader CR, Pribor HC. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles: MedTech USA; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's manual. System Requirements: IBM-compatible PC (Pentium or higher); Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, and XP; CD-ROM drive; 256 color or greater display monitor; 50 MB hard drive space.

31. Computer program on CD-ROM, DVD, or disk with supplemental note included

DxR clinician problem-based learning software [CD-ROM]. Carbondale (IL): DxR Development Group; 2001. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 student user manual and 1 quick reference sheet.

Green chemistry expert system [CD-ROM]. Version 0.99. [Washington]: Environmental Protection Agency (US), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics; 1998 Nov. 1 CD-ROM: 4 3/4 in. Available from: US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; EP 1.104:C 42/CD.

SUMA: the supply management system = SUMA: el sistema para la gestion de suministros [CD-ROM]. Version 5.2a. FUNDESUMA, producer. Washington: Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO; 2004 Feb. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. English, Spanish. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; 2006 AV-0611.

Reeder MM. Gamuts in radiology: an expert system for radiologists [CD-ROM]. Medical Interactive, producer. New York: Springer-Verlag; c1997. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 guide. ISBN: 0-387-14228-2.

A*L*S paramedic study helper [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. Middlebury (CT): Knightlite Software; 2002. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user guide. Software for fire fighters, EMTs, and paramedics.

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