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Congenital hypothyroidism

MedGen UID:
41344
Concept ID:
C0010308
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Congenital Hypothyroidism; Cretinism; Hypothyroidism, Congenital
SNOMED CT: Congenital hypothyroidism (190268003); Congenital goiter (217710005); Cretinism (217710005); Congenital hypothyroidism not due to iodine deficiency (217710005); Infantile hypothyroidism (217710005)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Related genes: IYD, DUOX2, PAX8, TSHR, TSHB, TPO
 
HPO: HP:0000851
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0018612
Orphanet: ORPHA442

Definition

Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) that affects infants from birth (congenital). The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck. It makes iodine-containing hormones that play an important role in regulating growth, brain development, and the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism). People with congenital hypothyroidism have lower-than-normal levels of these important hormones.

Congenital hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to develop or function properly. In 80 to 85 percent of cases, the thyroid gland is absent, severely reduced in size (hypoplastic), or abnormally located. These cases are classified as thyroid dysgenesis. In the remainder of cases, a normal-sized or enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) is present, but production of thyroid hormones is decreased or absent. Most of these cases occur when one of several steps in the hormone synthesis process is impaired; these cases are classified as thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Less commonly, reduction or absence of thyroid hormone production is caused by impaired stimulation of the production process (which is normally done by a structure at the base of the brain called the pituitary gland), even though the process itself is unimpaired. These cases are classified as central (or pituitary) hypothyroidism.

Signs and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism result from the shortage of thyroid hormones. Affected babies may show no features of the condition, although some babies with congenital hypothyroidism are less active and sleep more than normal. They may have difficulty feeding and experience constipation. If untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability and slow growth. In the United States and many other countries, all hospitals test newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. If treatment begins in the first two weeks after birth, infants usually develop normally.

Congenital hypothyroidism can also occur as part of syndromes that affect other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. Some common forms of syndromic hypothyroidism include Pendred syndrome, Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, and brain-lung-thyroid syndrome. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Conditions with this feature

Fetal iodine deficiency disorder
MedGen UID:
83336
Concept ID:
C0342200
Disease or Syndrome
Severely reduced physical and mental growth associated with pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and symptoms, due to dietary iodine deficiency.
Kabuki syndrome
MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss.
Sponastrime dysplasia
MedGen UID:
266247
Concept ID:
C1300260
Disease or Syndrome
Sponastrime dysplasia is an autosomal recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) named for characteristic clinical and radiographic findings, including spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, and striation of the metaphyses. Additional features include disproportionate short stature with exaggerated lumbar lordosis, scoliosis, coxa vara, limited elbow extension, small dysplastic epiphyses, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Radiographically, the abnormalities of the lumbar vertebral bodies are suggested to be the most specific finding because the characteristic metaphyseal striations may not be apparent at young ages. Striking clinical variability in presentation, severity, and associated features has been observed (summary by Burrage et al., 2019).
Anterior chamber cleavage disorder, cerebellar hypoplasia, hypothyroidism, and tracheal stenosis
MedGen UID:
316973
Concept ID:
C1832362
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, congenital malformation syndrome characterized by the association of anterior ocular chamber cleavage disorder with developmental delay, short stature and congenital hypothyroidism. Additional manifestations include cerebellar hypoplasia, tracheal stenosis, narrow external auditory meatus, and hip dislocation. There have been no further description in the literature since 1995.
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 6
MedGen UID:
375935
Concept ID:
C1846632
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypothyroidism can also occur as part of syndromes that affect other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. Some common forms of syndromic hypothyroidism include Pendred syndrome, Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, and brain-lung-thyroid syndrome.\n\nSigns and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism result from the shortage of thyroid hormones. Affected babies may show no features of the condition, although some babies with congenital hypothyroidism are less active and sleep more than normal. They may have difficulty feeding and experience constipation. If untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability and slow growth. In the United States and many other countries, all hospitals test newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. If treatment begins in the first two weeks after birth, infants usually develop normally.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to develop or function properly. In 80 to 85 percent of cases, the thyroid gland is absent, severely reduced in size (hypoplastic), or abnormally located. These cases are classified as thyroid dysgenesis. In the remainder of cases, a normal-sized or enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) is present, but production of thyroid hormones is decreased or absent. Most of these cases occur when one of several steps in the hormone synthesis process is impaired; these cases are classified as thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Less commonly, reduction or absence of thyroid hormone production is caused by impaired stimulation of the production process (which is normally done by a structure at the base of the brain called the pituitary gland), even though the process itself is unimpaired. These cases are classified as central (or pituitary) hypothyroidism.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) that affects infants from birth (congenital). The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck. It makes iodine-containing hormones that play an important role in regulating growth, brain development, and the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism). People with congenital hypothyroidism have lower-than-normal levels of these important hormones.
PHACE syndrome
MedGen UID:
376231
Concept ID:
C1847874
Disease or Syndrome
PHACE is an acronym for a neurocutaneous syndrome encompassing the following features: posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangiomas of the face (large or complex), arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and eye abnormalities. The association is referred to as PHACES when ventral developmental defects, such as sternal clefting or supraumbilical raphe, are present (summary by Bracken et al., 2011).
Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome
MedGen UID:
343420
Concept ID:
C1855794
Disease or Syndrome
Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome (BAMLAZ) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis or thyroid hypoplasia, cleft palate, and spiky hair, with or without choanal atresia or bifid epiglottis (summary by Sarma et al., 2022).
Neonatal diabetes mellitus with congenital hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
347541
Concept ID:
C1857775
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal diabetes mellitus with congenital hypothyroidism (NDH) syndrome is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation and onset of nonimmune diabetes mellitus within the first few weeks of life. Other features include renal parenchymal disease, primarily renal cystic dysplasia, and hepatic disease, with hepatitis in some patients and hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in others. Facial dysmorphism, when present, consistently involves low-set ears, epicanthal folds, flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, and thin upper lip. Most patients exhibit developmental delay (Dimitri et al., 2015).
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 2
MedGen UID:
358389
Concept ID:
C1869118
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital hypothyroidism can also occur as part of syndromes that affect other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. Some common forms of syndromic hypothyroidism include Pendred syndrome, Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, and brain-lung-thyroid syndrome.\n\nSigns and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism result from the shortage of thyroid hormones. Affected babies may show no features of the condition, although some babies with congenital hypothyroidism are less active and sleep more than normal. They may have difficulty feeding and experience constipation. If untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability and slow growth. In the United States and many other countries, all hospitals test newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. If treatment begins in the first two weeks after birth, infants usually develop normally.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to develop or function properly. In 80 to 85 percent of cases, the thyroid gland is absent, severely reduced in size (hypoplastic), or abnormally located. These cases are classified as thyroid dysgenesis. In the remainder of cases, a normal-sized or enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) is present, but production of thyroid hormones is decreased or absent. Most of these cases occur when one of several steps in the hormone synthesis process is impaired; these cases are classified as thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Less commonly, reduction or absence of thyroid hormone production is caused by impaired stimulation of the production process (which is normally done by a structure at the base of the brain called the pituitary gland), even though the process itself is unimpaired. These cases are classified as central (or pituitary) hypothyroidism.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) that affects infants from birth (congenital). The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck. It makes iodine-containing hormones that play an important role in regulating growth, brain development, and the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism). People with congenital hypothyroidism have lower-than-normal levels of these important hormones.
Brain-lung-thyroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
369694
Concept ID:
C1970269
Disease or Syndrome
NKX2-1-related disorders range from benign hereditary chorea (BHC) to choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress (also known as brain-lung-thyroid syndrome). Childhood-onset chorea, the hallmark of NKX2-1-related disorders, may or may not be associated with respiratory distress syndrome or congenital hypothyroidism. Chorea generally begins in early infancy or about age one year (most commonly) or in late childhood or adolescence, and progresses into the second decade after which it remains static or (rarely) remits. Pulmonary disease, the second most common manifestation, can include respiratory distress syndrome in neonates, interstitial lung disease in young children, and pulmonary fibrosis in older persons. The risk for pulmonary carcinoma is increased in young adults with an NKX2-1-related disorder. Thyroid dysfunction, the result of dysembryogenesis, can present as congenital hypothyroidism or compensated hypothyroidism. The risk for thyroid cancer is unknown and may not be increased. In one review, 50% of affected individuals had the full brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, 30% had involvement of brain and thyroid only, and 13% had isolated chorea only.
Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 5
MedGen UID:
388687
Concept ID:
C2673630
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NKX2-5 gene.
Acrodysostosis 1 with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
477858
Concept ID:
C3276228
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-1 (ACRDYS1) is a form of skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and nasal hypoplasia. Affected individuals often have advanced bone age and obesity. Laboratory studies show resistance to multiple hormones, including parathyroid, thyrotropin, calcitonin, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin (summary by Linglart et al., 2011). However, not all patients show endocrine abnormalities (Lee et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Acrodysostosis See also ACRDYS2 (614613), caused by mutation in the PDE4D gene (600129) on chromosome 5q12.
Congenital nongoitrous hypothyroidism 6
MedGen UID:
482447
Concept ID:
C3280817
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the THRA gene.
Acrodysostosis 2 with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
766164
Concept ID:
C3553250
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-2 (ACRDYS2) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and spinal stenosis. Many patients have intellectual disability and some have hormone resistance (summary by Michot et al., 2012 and Lee et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, see ACRDYS1 (101800).
Glucocorticoid deficiency 4
MedGen UID:
766501
Concept ID:
C3553587
Disease or Syndrome
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an inability of the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol in response to stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Affected individuals typically present within the first few months of life with symptoms related to cortisol deficiency, including failure to thrive, recurrent illnesses or infections, hypoglycemia, convulsions, and shock. The disease is life-threatening if untreated (summary by Meimaridou et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial glucocorticoid deficiency, see GCCD1 (202200).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1380260
Concept ID:
C4479631
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies (NDMSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset of progressive microcephaly and spasticity and severe global developmental delay resulting in profoundly impaired intellectual development and severely impaired or absent motor function. More variable features include seizures and optic atrophy. Brain imaging may show myelinating abnormalities and white matter lesions consistent with a leukoencephalopathy, as well as structural anomalies, including thin corpus callosum, gyral abnormalities, and cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. Some patients die in early childhood (summary by Falik Zaccai et al., 2017 and Hall et al., 2017).
Chromosome 1p35 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
1632676
Concept ID:
C4693669
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
1794230
Concept ID:
C5562020
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome-10 (GAMOS10) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of symptoms soon after birth. Affected individuals have progressive renal dysfunction with proteinuria associated with diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) on renal biopsy. Other features include global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypothyroidism, arachnodactyly, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients may have seizures or abnormalities on brain imaging. All reported patients have died in infancy (summary by Arrondel et al., 2019 and Schmidt et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824056
Concept ID:
C5774283
Disease or Syndrome
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome (BCAHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities. Additional features may include developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and growth failure/retardation (summary by Cuvertino et al., 2020 and Baldridge et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lauffer P, Zwaveling-Soonawala N, Naafs JC, Boelen A, van Trotsenburg ASP
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:686317. Epub 2021 Sep 9 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.686317. PMID: 34566885Free PMC Article
van Trotsenburg P, Stoupa A, Léger J, Rohrer T, Peters C, Fugazzola L, Cassio A, Heinrichs C, Beauloye V, Pohlenz J, Rodien P, Coutant R, Szinnai G, Murray P, Bartés B, Luton D, Salerno M, de Sanctis L, Vigone M, Krude H, Persani L, Polak M
Thyroid 2021 Mar;31(3):387-419. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0333. PMID: 33272083Free PMC Article
Wassner AJ
Paediatr Drugs 2017 Aug;19(4):291-301. doi: 10.1007/s40272-017-0238-0. PMID: 28534114

Curated

UK NICE Guideline NG145, Thyroid disease: assessment and management, 2023

American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Transition to Adult Health Care ACT Sheet, Congenital Hypothyroidism, 2012

American College of Medical Genetics Algorithm, Congenital Hypothyroidism (TSH), 2009

American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Algorithm, Congenital Hypothyroidism (T4), 2009

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kostopoulou E, Miliordos K, Spiliotis B
Hormones (Athens) 2021 Jun;20(2):225-236. Epub 2021 Jan 5 doi: 10.1007/s42000-020-00267-x. PMID: 33400193
Wang F, Zang Y, Li M, Liu W, Wang Y, Yu X, Li H, Wang F, Liu S
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020;11:237. Epub 2020 Apr 21 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00237. PMID: 32425884Free PMC Article
Eng L, Lam L
Neoreviews 2020 Jan;21(1):e30-e36. doi: 10.1542/neo.21-1-e30. PMID: 31894080
Wassner AJ
Clin Perinatol 2018 Mar;45(1):1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2017.10.004. PMID: 29405999
Léger J, Olivieri A, Donaldson M, Torresani T, Krude H, van Vliet G, Polak M, Butler G; ESPE-PES-SLEP-JSPE-APEG-APPES-ISPAE; Congenital Hypothyroidism Consensus Conference Group
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Feb;99(2):363-84. Epub 2014 Jan 21 doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1891. PMID: 24446653Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Brady J, Cannupp A, Myers J, Jnah AJ
Neonatal Netw 2021 Nov 1;40(6):377-385. doi: 10.1891/11-T-699. PMID: 34845088
Lauffer P, Zwaveling-Soonawala N, Naafs JC, Boelen A, van Trotsenburg ASP
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:686317. Epub 2021 Sep 9 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.686317. PMID: 34566885Free PMC Article
Guerri G, Bressan S, Sartori M, Costantini A, Benedetti S, Agostini F, Tezzele S, Cecchin S, Scaramuzza A, Bertelli M
Acta Biomed 2019 Sep 30;90(10-S):83-86. doi: 10.23750/abm.v90i10-S.8765. PMID: 31577260Free PMC Article
Wassner AJ
Clin Perinatol 2018 Mar;45(1):1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2017.10.004. PMID: 29405999
Wassner AJ
Paediatr Drugs 2017 Aug;19(4):291-301. doi: 10.1007/s40272-017-0238-0. PMID: 28534114

Therapy

Klosinska M, Kaczynska A, Ben-Skowronek I
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:860862. Epub 2022 Mar 18 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.860862. PMID: 35370986Free PMC Article
Lauffer P, Zwaveling-Soonawala N, Naafs JC, Boelen A, van Trotsenburg ASP
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:686317. Epub 2021 Sep 9 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.686317. PMID: 34566885Free PMC Article
Cherella CE, Wassner AJ
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2020 Feb;27(1):63-69. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000520. PMID: 31789720
Kiess W, Penke M, Gesing J, Stoltze A, Körner A, Pfäffle R, Kratzsch J
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jun 27;31(6):595-596. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2018-0197. PMID: 29804102
Wassner AJ
Clin Perinatol 2018 Mar;45(1):1-18. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2017.10.004. PMID: 29405999

Prognosis

Peters C, Schoenmakers N
Eur J Endocrinol 2022 Jun 20;187(2):R1-R16. doi: 10.1530/EJE-21-1278. PMID: 35588090Free PMC Article
van Trotsenburg P, Stoupa A, Léger J, Rohrer T, Peters C, Fugazzola L, Cassio A, Heinrichs C, Beauloye V, Pohlenz J, Rodien P, Coutant R, Szinnai G, Murray P, Bartés B, Luton D, Salerno M, de Sanctis L, Vigone M, Krude H, Persani L, Polak M
Thyroid 2021 Mar;31(3):387-419. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0333. PMID: 33272083Free PMC Article
Wassner AJ
Paediatr Drugs 2017 Aug;19(4):291-301. doi: 10.1007/s40272-017-0238-0. PMID: 28534114
Keller-Petrot I, Leger J, Sergent-Alaoui A, de Labriolle-Vaylet C
Semin Nucl Med 2017 Mar;47(2):135-142. Epub 2016 Dec 16 doi: 10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2016.10.005. PMID: 28237002
Vanderpas JB, Moreno-Reyes R
Minerva Med 2017 Apr;108(2):124-135. Epub 2017 Jan 12 doi: 10.23736/S0026-4806.17.04884-4. PMID: 28079353

Clinical prediction guides

Esposito A, Vigone MC, Polizzi M, Wasniewska MG, Cassio A, Mussa A, Gastaldi R, Di Mase R, Vincenzi G, Pozzi C, Peroni E, Bravaccio C, Capalbo D, Bruzzese D, Salerno M
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022;13:923448. Epub 2022 Sep 5 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.923448. PMID: 36133316Free PMC Article
Peters C, Schoenmakers N
Eur J Endocrinol 2022 Jun 20;187(2):R1-R16. doi: 10.1530/EJE-21-1278. PMID: 35588090Free PMC Article
van Trotsenburg P, Stoupa A, Léger J, Rohrer T, Peters C, Fugazzola L, Cassio A, Heinrichs C, Beauloye V, Pohlenz J, Rodien P, Coutant R, Szinnai G, Murray P, Bartés B, Luton D, Salerno M, de Sanctis L, Vigone M, Krude H, Persani L, Polak M
Thyroid 2021 Mar;31(3):387-419. doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0333. PMID: 33272083Free PMC Article
Sun F, Zhang JX, Yang CY, Gao GQ, Zhu WB, Han B, Zhang LL, Wan YY, Ye XP, Ma YR, Zhang MM, Yang L, Zhang QY, Liu W, Guo CC, Chen G, Zhao SX, Song KY, Song HD
Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Jun;178(6):623-633. Epub 2018 Apr 12 doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-1017. PMID: 29650690Free PMC Article
Köhrle J
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2013 Oct;20(5):441-8. doi: 10.1097/01.med.0000433066.24541.88. PMID: 23974773

Recent systematic reviews

Carmona-Hidalgo B, Martín-Gómez C, Herrera-Ramos E, Rodríguez-López R, Fontanet LN, Moreno JC, Blasco-Amaro JA, Léger J, Dario-Ortigoza-Escobar J; NKX2-1-Related Disorders Guideline Working Group
PLoS One 2024;19(7):e0303880. Epub 2024 Jul 11 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0303880. PMID: 38990976Free PMC Article
Hashemipour M, Hovsepian S, Ansari A, Keikha M, Khalighinejad P, Niknam N
Pediatr Neonatol 2018 Feb;59(1):3-14. Epub 2017 Jul 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2017.04.006. PMID: 28811156
Huang CJ, Jap TS
J Chin Med Assoc 2015 Mar;78(3):145-53. Epub 2014 Nov 11 doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2014.09.010. PMID: 25455162
Poblano A, Arteaga C, García-Sánchez G
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2009 Sep;67(3A):736-40. doi: 10.1590/s0004-282x2009000400038. PMID: 19722067
Osborn DA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(4):CD001070. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001070. PMID: 11687092

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • NICE, 2023
      UK NICE Guideline NG145, Thyroid disease: assessment and management, 2023
    • ACMG ACT, 2012
      American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Transition to Adult Health Care ACT Sheet, Congenital Hypothyroidism, 2012
    • ACMG Algorithm, 2009
      American College of Medical Genetics Algorithm, Congenital Hypothyroidism (TSH), 2009
    • ACMG Algorithm, 2009
      American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Algorithm, Congenital Hypothyroidism (T4), 2009

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