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GGCT gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 79017, updated on 10-Oct-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
GGCTprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
gamma-glutamylcyclotransferaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:21705
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000006625 MIM:137170
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GGC; GCTG; CRF21; C7orf24
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides, the penultimate step in glutathione catabolism, and may play a critical role in glutathione homeostasis. The encoded protein may also play a role in cell proliferation, and the expression of this gene is a potential marker for cancer. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the long arm of chromosome 5 and the short arm of chromosomes 2 and 20. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in skin (RPKM 24.5), colon (RPKM 21.5) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GGCT in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
7p14.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200815 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 7 NC_000007.14 (30496621..30504829, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (30536237..30544457, complement)

Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1176 Neighboring gene nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928268 Neighboring gene golgin A8 family member A pseudogene Neighboring gene GARS1 divergent transcript

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC3077, FLJ11717

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
glutathione biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase
Names
cytochrome c-releasing factor 21
gamma -glutamyl cyclotransferase
NP_001186744.1
NP_001186745.1
NP_001186746.1
NP_076956.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001199815.2NP_001186744.1  gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001186744.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) has multiple differences in the coding region, compared to variant 1, one of which results in a translational frameshift. The resulting protein (isoform 2) has a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC005154, BC019243, BE407390
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS56476.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O75223
    Related
    ENSP00000387235.1, ENST00000409390.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd06661
    Location:1997
    GGCT_like; GGCT-like domains, also called AIG2-like family. Gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) catalyzes the formation of pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline) from dipeptides containing gamma-glutamyl, and is a dimeric protein. In Homo sapiens, the protein is ...
  2. NM_001199816.2NP_001186745.1  gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001186745.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an exon in the coding region, which results in a frameshift and an early stop codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC005154, BC005356, BC019243
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS56475.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O75223
    Related
    ENSP00000005374.6, ENST00000005374.10
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd06661
    Location:1997
    GGCT_like; GGCT-like domains, also called AIG2-like family. Gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) catalyzes the formation of pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline) from dipeptides containing gamma-glutamyl, and is a dimeric protein. In Homo sapiens, the protein is ...
  3. NM_001199817.2NP_001186746.1  gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001186746.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks multiple exons in the coding region but maintains the reading frame, compared to variant 1. This variant encodes isoform 4, which is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC005154, BC019243, BE885397
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS56474.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O75223
    Related
    ENSP00000386610.1, ENST00000409144.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd06661
    Location:1947
    GGCT_like; GGCT-like domains, also called AIG2-like family. Gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) catalyzes the formation of pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline) from dipeptides containing gamma-glutamyl, and is a dimeric protein. In Homo sapiens, the protein is ...
    cl22886
    Location:3566
    GGCT_like; GGCT-like domains, also called AIG2-like family. Gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) catalyzes the formation of pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline) from dipeptides containing gamma-glutamyl, and is a dimeric protein. In Homo sapiens, the protein is ...
  4. NM_024051.4NP_076956.1  gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_076956.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC005154, BC000625, BC019243
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5428.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O75223
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A090N7V5
    Related
    ENSP00000275428.4, ENST00000275428.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam13772
    Location:78160
    AIG2_2; AIG2-like family

RNA

  1. NR_037669.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks an exon, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC005154, BC019243, BG527593
    Related
    ENST00000440082.5

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20200815

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    30496621..30504829 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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