Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

MIR221 microRNA 221 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 407006, updated on 14-Oct-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
MIR221provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
microRNA 221provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:31601
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000207870 MIM:300568; miRBase:MI0000298
Gene type
ncRNA
RefSeq status
PROVISIONAL
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MIRN221; mir-221; miRNA221
Summary
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

Genomic context

See MIR221 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
Xp11.3
Exon count:
1
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) X NC_000023.11 (45746157..45746266, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) X NC_000023.10 (45605585..45605694, complement)

Chromosome X - NC_000023.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene keratin 8 pseudogene 14 Neighboring gene mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene Neighboring gene microRNA 222 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2595

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Cell Differentiation - Index, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cell Differentiation - Index, organism-specific biosystemProteins and miRNAs associated with major cell type differentiation pathways.
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation, organism-specific biosystemGrowth factors and miRNA regulating differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to various blood-related cell types. Note that myeloblasts branch off separately from erythrocytes and megakaryoc...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first out of two pathways which deals with the DNA damage response. It is comprised of two central gene products (ATM and ATR) influenced by different sources of DNA damage (in blue). The...
  • miRNAs involved in DNA damage response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRNAs involved in DNA damage response, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA clusters involved in de DNA damage response. Genes they regulated and genes that regulate them. All genes presented in this pathway can also be found in the pathway "DNA damage response(Homo...
  • miRs in Muscle Cell Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRs in Muscle Cell Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem
    miRs in Muscle Cell Differentiation

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Other Names

  • hsa-mir-221

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Process Evidence Code Pubs
gene silencing by miRNA IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
gene silencing by miRNA IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
gene silencing by miRNA IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
miRNA mediated inhibition of translation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
miRNA mediated inhibition of translation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation by host of viral genome replication ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of TRAIL-activated apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of TRAIL-activated apoptotic signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell adhesion molecule production IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of double-strand break repair IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of inflammatory response IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of necroptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of Schwann cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of Schwann cell proliferation involved in axon regeneration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of axon regeneration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial cell migration IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of wound healing, spreading of epidermal cells IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to glucose IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

RNA

  1. NR_029635.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: PROVISIONAL

    Source sequence(s)
    AC234772
    Related
    ENST00000385135.1

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109.20190905

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000023.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    45746157..45746266 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
Support Center