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MIR21 microRNA 21 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 406991, updated on 13-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
MIR21provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
microRNA 21provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:31586
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000284190 MIM:611020; miRBase:MI0000077
Gene type
ncRNA
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MIRN21; miR-21; miRNA21; hsa-mir-21
Summary
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

Genomic context

See MIR21 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17q23.1
Exon count:
1
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 17 NC_000017.11 (59841266..59841337)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (57918627..57918698)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 Neighboring gene vacuole membrane protein 1 Neighboring gene VMP1 intron CAGE-defined low expression enhancer Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 450, pseudogene Neighboring gene tubulin delta 1 Neighboring gene NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8 pseudogene 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway displays current genes, proteolytic events and other processes associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This pathway was adapted from KEGG on 10/7/2011. Note: mitochondria...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death, organism-specific biosystemProgrammed cell death: autophagic cell death. Autophagy (self-eating) is a survival mechanism deployed by cells to cope with conditions of nutrient deprivation. However, unrestrained autophagy can re...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Process Evidence Code Pubs
BMP signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
activation of protein kinase B activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to resveratrol ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
collagen metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
embryo implantation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
endothelial tube morphogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in cardiac fibroblast development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
gene silencing by miRNA IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
gene silencing by miRNA IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
gene silencing by miRNA IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
miRNA mediated inhibition of translation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
miRNA mediated inhibition of translation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of GTPase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of MAPK cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of angiogenesis IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of angiogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of arginine catabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of cartilage development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of chondrocyte proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of endothelial tube morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated programmed cell death ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of hydrogen sulfide biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of innate immune response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway by p53 class mediator IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of stress fiber assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of superoxide dismutase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of type I interferon production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phenotypic switching IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell projection organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cellular response to hypoxia ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of endothelial cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fat cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of inflammatory response IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of inflammatory response to wounding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of keratinocyte proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of metalloendopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of myofibroblast differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of potassium ion export across plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of replicative senescence IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of calcium ion transmembrane transport via high voltage-gated calcium channel IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell migration IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell shape IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein kinase B signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of signal transduction involved in mitotic G2 DNA damage checkpoint IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space HDA PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
micro-ribonucleoprotein complex IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

RNA

  1. NR_029493.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC004686
    Related
    ENST00000362134.1

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    59841266..59841337
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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