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GNAT3 G protein subunit alpha transducin 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 346562, updated on 17-Jun-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
GNAT3provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
G protein subunit alpha transducin 3provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:22800
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000214415 MIM:139395
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GDCA
Summary
Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transmitted from taste receptors by a specific guanine nucleotide binding protein. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit of this heterotrimeric G protein, which is found not only in the oral epithelium but also in gut tissues. Variations in this gene have been linked to metabolic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]
Expression
Low expression observed in reference dataset See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GNAT3 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
7q21.11
Exon count:
9
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 7 NC_000007.14 (80457291..80512503, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (80087987..80141242, complement)

Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101927269 Neighboring gene small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptides B and B1 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986812 Neighboring gene CD36 molecule Neighboring gene semaphorin 3C

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12, organism-specific biosystemCo-activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 is necessary for complete platelet activation. P2Y1 is coupled to Gq and helps trigger the release of calcium from internal stores, leading to weak and reversible plat...
  • Activation of GABAB receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of GABAB receptors, organism-specific biosystemGABA B receptors are metabotropic receptors that are functionally linked to C type G protein coupled receptors.? GABA B receptors are activated upon ligand binding. The GABA B1 subunit binds ligand a...
  • Adenylate cyclase inhibitory pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adenylate cyclase inhibitory pathway, organism-specific biosystemGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) alpha (Gi-alpha) inhibits adenylate cyclase, thus inhibiting the production of cAMP from ATP and ultimately decreasing the activity of cAMP-dependent protein k...
  • Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystemDietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested t...
  • Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, conserved biosystemDietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested t...
  • Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystemThe eukaryotic chaperonin TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC/ CCT) plays an essential role in the folding of a subset of proteins prominent among which are the actins and tubulins (reviewed in Altschuler and...
  • Cooperation of PDCL (PhLP1) and TRiC/CCT in G-protein beta folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cooperation of PDCL (PhLP1) and TRiC/CCT in G-protein beta folding, organism-specific biosystemThe chaperonin complex TRiC/CCT is needed for the proper folding of all five G-protein beta subunits (Wells et al. 2006). TRiC/CCT cooperates with the phosducin-like protein PDCL (commonly known as P...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
  • G alpha (z) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (z) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe heterotrimeric G protein Gz, is a member of the Gi family. Unlike other Gi family members it lacks an ADP ribosylation site cysteine four residues from the carboxyl terminus and is thus pertussis...
  • G-protein activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein activation, organism-specific biosystemReceptor activated heterotrimeric G proteins consist of the Galpha and the tightly associated Gbeta-gamma subunits. When a ligand binds to a G protein-coupled receptor, it stabilises a conformation ...
  • G-protein mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein mediated events, organism-specific biosystemWhen dissociated Galpha-GTP and Gbeta-gamma can activate or inhibit different signalling cascades and effector proteins. The precise pathways depends on the identity of the alpha and beta/gamma subty...
  • GABA B receptor activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GABA B receptor activation, organism-specific biosystemFunctional GABA B receptors are heteromers of GABA B1 and B2 subunits, complexed with G protein alpha-i, 0, beta, and gamma subunits. They function as metabotropic receptors. When GABA is bound to th...
  • GABA receptor activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GABA receptor activation, organism-specific biosystemGamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are the major inhibitory receptors in human synapses. They are of two types. GABA A receptors are fast-acting ligand gated chloride ion channels that mediate ...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystemIncretins are peptide hormones produced by the gut that enhance the ability of glucose to stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells in the pancreas. Two incretins have been identified: Glucagon-lik...
  • Inhibition of adenylate cyclase pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Inhibition of adenylate cyclase pathway, organism-specific biosystemGABA B receptors are G protein coupled receptors that are activated by GABA binding to the B1 subunit and B2 subunit alters the activity of adenylate cyclase by interacting with the G alpha i/alpha 0...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
  • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
  • Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystemOpioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as...
  • PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystemThe phospholipase C (PLC) family of enzymes is both diverse and complex. The isoforms beta, gamma and delta (each have subtypes) make up the members of this family. PLC hydrolyzes phosphatidylinosito...
  • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Protein folding, organism-specific biosystemDue to the crowded envirnoment within the cell, many proteins must interact with molecular chaperones to attain their native conformation (reviewed in Young et al., 2004). Chaperones recognize and...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystemIn the initial response to injury, platelets adhere to damaged blood vessels, responding to the exposure of collagen from the vascular epithelium. Once adhered they degranulate, releasing stored seco...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystemIn L cells of the intestine the transcription factors TCF-4 (TCF7L2) and Beta-catenin form a heterodimer and bind the G2 enhancer of the Proglucagon gene GCG,activating its transcription to yield Pro...
  • Taste transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Taste transduction, organism-specific biosystemFive basic tastes are recognized by humans and most other animals - bitter, sweet, sour, salty and umami. In vertebrates, taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells (TRCs). At least three dis...
  • Taste transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Taste transduction, conserved biosystemFive basic tastes are recognized by humans and most other animals - bitter, sweet, sour, salty and umami. In vertebrates, taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells (TRCs). At least three dis...
  • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
GTP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein folding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
response to nicotine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
sensory perception of sweet taste IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
sensory perception of umami taste IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
acrosomal vesicle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apical plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
axoneme IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
heterotrimeric G-protein complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
photoreceptor inner segment IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
photoreceptor outer segment IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein-containing complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3
Names
guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 3
gustatory G protein
gustducin alpha-3 chain
gustducin, alpha polypeptide
NP_001095856.1
XP_011514426.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001102386.3NP_001095856.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001095856.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC004862, AC073182, BC147016
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS47625.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    A8MTJ3
    Related
    ENSP00000381339.3, ENST00000398291.3
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00066
    Location:34348
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    80457291..80512503 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011516124.2XP_011514426.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00066
    Location:34291
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)
    smart00275
    Location:13294
    G_alpha; G protein alpha subunit
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