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GIP gastric inhibitory polypeptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2695, updated on 12-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
GIPprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
gastric inhibitory polypeptideprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4270
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000159224 MIM:137240; Vega:OTTHUMG00000161171
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Summary
This gene encodes an incretin hormone and belongs to the glucagon superfamily. The encoded protein is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis as it is a potent stimulator of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells following food ingestion and nutrient absorption. This gene stimulates insulin secretion via its G protein-coupled receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase and other signal transduction pathways. It is a relatively poor inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Biased expression in duodenum (RPKM 96.0) and small intestine (RPKM 33.9) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GIP in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17q21.32
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 17 NC_000017.11 (48958556..48968593, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (47035918..47045955, complement)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene SNF8, ESCRT-II complex subunit Neighboring gene RNA, U1 small nuclear 42, pseudogene Neighboring gene insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 Neighboring gene COX assembly mitochondrial protein homolog pseudogene Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 826, pseudogene

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystemThis family is known as Family B (secretin-receptor family, family 2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Family B GPCRs include secretin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide...
  • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe glucagon hormone family regulates the activity of GPCRs from the secretin receptor subfamily in Class II/B (Mayo KE et al, 2003).
  • Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystemIncretins are peptide hormones produced by the gut that enhance the ability of glucose to stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells in the pancreas. Two incretins have been identified: Glucagon-lik...
  • Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP), organism-specific biosystemIn K cells of the intestine the transcription factors PAX6 and PDX-1 activate transcription of the gene encoding Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP, first called Gastric Inhibitory Pep...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
hormone activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
adult locomotory behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
digestive system development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endocrine pancreas development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
exploration behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
female pregnancy IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
long-term synaptic potentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
memory IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of glucagon secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of glucose transmembrane transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of insulin secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of insulin secretion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to acidic pH IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to amino acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to axon injury IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucose IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to organic cyclic compound IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to peptide hormone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to selenium ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to starvation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
sensory perception of pain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
triglyceride homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuronal cell body IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
secretory granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
gastric inhibitory polypeptide
Names
glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
incretin hormone

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_004123.2NP_004114.1  gastric inhibitory polypeptide preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004114.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC069100, M18185
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11542.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P09681
    Related
    ENSP00000350005.2, OTTHUMP00000219839, ENST00000357424.2, OTTHUMT00000364044
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00123
    Location:5278
    Hormone_2; Peptide hormone

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    48958556..48968593 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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