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Usher Syndrome Type I

Synonym: USH1

, PhD and , PhD.

Author Information

Initial Posting: ; Last Update: May 19, 2016.

Summary

Clinical characteristics.

Usher syndrome type I is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa. Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.

Diagnosis/testing.

The diagnosis of Usher syndrome type I is established in a proband using electrophysiologic and subjective tests of hearing and retinal function. Identification of biallelic pathogenic variants in one of six genes – MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, and CIB2 – establishes the diagnosis if clinical features are inconclusive.

Management.

Treatment of manifestations: Hearing aids are usually ineffectual; cochlear implantation should be considered, especially for young children. Communication skills may be optimized if all (i.e., including unaffected) family members receive specialized training from educators of the hearing impaired. Progressive vision loss may eventually limit communication to tactile signing.

Surveillance: Routine ophthalmologic evaluation to detect potentially treatable complications such as cataracts.

Agents/circumstances to avoid: Competition in sports requiring acute vision and/or good balance may be difficult and possibly dangerous; progressive loss of peripheral vision impairs the ability to safely drive a car. Because of the high risk for disorientation when submerged in water, swimming needs to be undertaken with caution.

Evaluation of relatives at risk: The hearing of at-risk sibs should be assessed as soon after birth as possible to allow early diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss.

Genetic counseling.

Usher syndrome type I is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At conception, each sib of an affected individual has a 25% chance of being affected, a 50% chance of being an asymptomatic carrier, and a 25% chance of being unaffected and not a carrier. Carrier testing for at-risk relatives and prenatal testing for pregnancies at increased risk are possible if the pathogenic variants in the family are known.

Diagnosis

Suggestive Findings

Usher syndrome type I should be suspected in individuals with:

Establishing the Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Usher syndrome type I is established in a proband with the above clinical features and family history. Identification of biallelic pathogenic variants in one of the genes listed in Table 1 establishes the diagnosis if clinical features are inconclusive.

Molecular testing approaches can include serial single-gene testing, use of a multigene panel, and more comprehensive genomic testing.

Serial single-gene testing

  • Sequence analysis of MYO7A is performed first and followed by a multigene panel if only one or no pathogenic MYO7A variants are identified.
  • If only one pathogenic variant is identified with single-gene testing or a multigene panel, gene targeted deletion/duplication analysis is recommended for the same gene.
  • In individuals of Acadian ancestry, molecular testing begins with sequence analysis of USH1C. Targeted analysis for p.Val72Glu (c.216G>A) in USH1C can be performed first in individuals of Acadian ancestry.
  • In individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, molecular testing begins with sequence analysis of PCDH15. Targeted analysis for p.Arg245Ter (c.733C>T) in PCDH15 can be performed first in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

A multigene panel that includes the genes listed in Table 1 and other genes of interest (see Differential Diagnosis) may also be considered. Note: (1) The genes included and the sensitivity of multigene panels vary by laboratory and are likely to change over time. (2) Some multigene panels may include genes not associated with the condition discussed in this GeneReview; thus, clinicians need to determine which multigene panel is most likely to identify the genetic cause of the condition at the most reasonable cost while limiting identification of variants of uncertain significance and pathogenic variants in genes that do not explain the underlying phenotype. (3) In some laboratories, panel options may include a custom laboratory-designed panel and/or custom phenotype-focused exome analysis that includes genes specified by the clinician. (4) Methods used in a panel may include sequence analysis, deletion/duplication analysis, and/or other non-sequencing-based tests.

For an introduction to multigene panels click here. More detailed information for clinicians ordering genetic tests can be found here.

More comprehensive genomic testing (when available) including exome sequencing, genome sequencing, and mitochondrial sequencing may be considered if serial single-gene testing (and/or use of a multigene panel) fails to confirm a diagnosis in an individual with features of Usher syndrome type I. Such testing may provide or suggest a diagnosis not previously considered (e.g., mutation of a different gene that results in a similar clinical presentation).

For an introduction to comprehensive genomic testing click here. More detailed information for clinicians ordering genomic testing can be found here.

Table 1.

Molecular Genetic Testing Used in Usher Syndrome Type I (USH1)

Gene 1LocusProportion of USH1 Attributed to Pathogenic Variants 2 in This GeneProportion of Pathogenic Variants 2 Detected by Test Method
Sequence analysis 3Gene-targeted deletion/duplication analysis 4
MYO7AUSH1B53%-63%~90% 5Unknown 6
USH1CUSH1C1%-15% 7>90%See footnote 8
CDH23USH1D7%-20%~90% 9Unknown 10
PCDH15USH1F7%-12% 1150%-90%Up to 37% 12
USH1GUSH1GRare (0%-4%)>90%None reported 13
CIB2USH1JUnknown>90%None reported 13
Unknown 1410%-15% 15NA
1.
2.

See Molecular Genetics for information on allelic variants detected in this gene.

3.

Sequence analysis detects variants that are benign, likely benign, of uncertain significance, likely pathogenic, or pathogenic. Pathogenic variants may include small intragenic deletions/insertions and missense, nonsense, and splice-site variants; typically, exon or whole-gene deletions/duplications are not detected. For issues to consider in interpretation of sequence analysis results, click here.

4.

Gene-targeted deletion/duplication analysis detects intragenic deletions or duplications. Methods that may be used include: quantitative PCR, long-range PCR, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and a gene-targeted microarray designed to detect single-exon deletions or duplications.

5.
6.

Intragenic multiexon deletions have been reported; however, no data on detection rate of gene-targeted deletion/duplication analysis are available [Adato et al 1997, Baux et al 2008, Roux et al 2011].

7.

Almost all Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population is USH1C.

8.

Rare exon or multiexon deletions have been reported [Bitner-Glindzicz et al 2000].

9.
10.

Intragenic deletions and duplications have been reported; however, no data on detection rate of gene-targeted deletion/duplication analysis are available [Nakanishi et al 2010, Aparisi et al 2014].

11.

p.Arg245Ter (c.733C>T) is detected in a large percentage of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with USH1F.

12.
13.

No deletions or duplications have been reported to cause USH1G or USH1J.

14.

USH1E has been mapped to 21q21; USH1H has been mapped to 15q22-q23 [Ahmed et al 2009]; USH1K has been mapped to 10p11.21-q21.1 [Jaworek et al 2012].

15.

Clinical Characteristics

Clinical Description

The hearing loss in Usher syndrome type I is congenital (i.e., present at birth), bilateral, and profound. Affected individuals do not develop speech. Vestibular areflexia is associated with the deafness and is a defining feature of this disorder. Because of vestibular areflexia, children with Usher syndrome type I typically walk later than usual, at approximately age 18 months to two years. Older children may seem "clumsy" and experience frequent accidental injuries or have difficulty with activities requiring balance, such as riding a bicycle or playing sports.

The child with Usher syndrome type I is often misdiagnosed as having nonsyndromic deafness until tunnel vision and night blindness, early signs of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), become severe enough to be noticeable, either by parents and teachers or by the individual. RP is progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of the retina that initiates at the periphery; rods (photoreceptors active in the dark-adapted state) are mainly affected first, causing night blindness and constricted visual fields (tunnel vision). Cones (photoreceptors active in the light-adapted state) may also be involved [Gregory-Evans & Bhattacharya 1998].

Visual fields become progressively constricted with time. The rate and degree of visual field loss show intra- and interfamilial variability. A visual field of 5-10 degrees is common for a person with Usher syndrome type I who is age 30-40 years. Visual impairment worsens significantly each year [Pennings et al 2004]. However, it is unusual for the typical individual with Usher syndrome type I to become completely blind, although cataracts sometimes reduce central vision to light/dark perception only.

Heterozygotes. Heterozygotes are asymptomatic; however, they may exhibit slightly subnormal electrooculographies (EOGs) and audiograms that are not sensitive or specific enough for carrier detection. Note: The EOG is an electrophysiologic test of function of the oculomotor system. Electrodes are placed on each side of the eye; the individual being tested keeps the head still, while moving his/her eyes back and forth, alternating between two flashing red lights. The EOG is redundant with the ERG in most retinal disorders. The advantage of the EOG, however, is that the electrodes do not touch the surface of the eye.

Genotype-Phenotype Correlations

CDH23. A clear genotype-phenotype correlation exists in persons with CDH23 pathogenic variants with respect to hearing loss, vestibular findings, and RP. A reduced frequency of null (e.g., nonsense, frameshift, splice) variants in CDH23 is observed as the phenotype becomes milder, with approximately 88%, 67%, and 0% of null variants found in persons with typical Usher type I, atypical Usher type I, and DFNB18, respectively [Astuto et al 2002].

Penetrance

Penetrance is complete in Usher syndrome type I.

Nomenclature

USH1A. Gerber et al [2006] provide evidence that the USH1A locus does not exist; six of the nine families from the Bressuire region of France originally reported to map to this locus have been found to have pathogenic variants in MYO7A (USH1B).

Prevalence

In older publications the prevalence of Usher syndrome has been reported to range from 3.2 to 6.2 per 100,000. Usher syndrome was estimated to be responsible for 3%-6% of all childhood deafness and approximately 50% of all deaf-blindness. Many of these estimates were made prior to 1989, when Möller et al [1989] subdivided Usher syndrome into Usher syndromes type I and II, and before the recognition of Usher syndrome type III. The specialized educational requirements of the congenitally deaf have historically rendered the population with Usher syndrome type I more accessible for study by researchers. Persons with Usher syndrome type II or Usher syndrome type III, who communicate orally and who are mainstreamed into regular schools, are not well represented in these estimates. It has been argued that the prevalence of Usher syndrome in the general population may therefore be substantially greater.

A recent study of children with hearing loss in Oregon found pathogenic variants in Usher syndrome-associated genes in 11% and estimated that the prevalence may be as high as one in 6,000 [Kimberling et al 2010].

Differential Diagnosis

Nonsyndromic hearing loss. Often, a family with more than one affected sib is thought to have nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) (see Hereditary Hearing Loss and Deafness Overview) until the oldest is diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Subsequent visual evaluation often reveals the pre-symptomatic early stages of RP in younger affected sibs. Pathogenic variants for NSHL and RP can be inherited independently by a single individual whose symptoms mimic those of Usher syndrome [Fakin et al 2012]. NSHL and RP are both relatively common, with frequencies of 1:1000 and 1:4000, respectively. Larger families lessen the statistical probability of this occurrence because at least one sib is likely to inherit one pathogenic variant without the other.

Usher syndrome type II. Usher syndrome type II is characterized by (1) congenital, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss predominantly in the higher frequencies that ranges from mild to severe; (2) normal vestibular function; and (3) adolescent-to-adult onset of retinitis pigmentosa. One of the most important clinical distinctions between Usher syndromes type I and II is that children with Usher syndrome type I are usually delayed in walking until age 18 months to two years because of vestibular involvement, whereas children with Usher syndrome type II usually begin walking at approximately age one year.

Usher syndrome type III (OMIM 276902). Usher syndrome type III is characterized by post-lingual progressive sensorineural hearing loss, late-onset RP, and variable impairment of vestibular function [Plantinga et al 2005]. Pathogenic variants in CLRN1 or HARS are causative [Joensuu et al 2001, Västinsalo et al 2011, Puffenberger et al 2012]. Some individuals with Usher syndrome type III may have profound hearing loss and vestibular disturbance and thus be clinically misdiagnosed as having Usher syndrome type I [Pennings et al 2003].

Deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy syndrome (DDON). Males with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy (DDON) syndrome have pre-lingual or post-lingual sensorineural hearing impairment in early childhood, slowly progressive dystonia or ataxia in the teens, slowly progressive decreased visual acuity from optic atrophy beginning at approximately age 20 years, and dementia beginning at approximately age 40 years. Psychiatric symptoms such as personality change and paranoia may appear in childhood and progress. The hearing impairment appears to be constant in age of onset and progression, whereas the neurologic, visual, and neuropsychiatric signs vary in degree of severity and rate of progression. Females may have mild hearing impairment and focal dystonia. DDON syndrome occurs as either a single-gene disorder resulting from a pathogenic variant in TIMM8A or a contiguous gene deletion syndrome at Xq22. DDON syndrome is inherited in an X-linked manner.

Individuals with DDON syndrome may initially be suspected of having Usher syndrome [W Kimberling, personal communication, 2005] because the hearing impairment in DDON syndrome may be congenital and the hearing impairment in Usher syndrome type II may be progressive [Sadeghi et al 2004].

Other. Viral infections, diabetic neuropathy, and syndromes involving mitochondrial defects (see Mitochondrial Disorders Overview) can all produce concurrent symptoms of hearing loss and retinal pigmentary changes that suggest Usher syndrome.

Management

Evaluations Following Initial Diagnosis

To establish the extent of disease and needs in an individual diagnosed with Usher syndrome type I, the following evaluations are recommended if they have not already been completed:

  • Audiology. Otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, assessment of speech perception, and, in some individuals, auditory brain stem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE)
  • Vestibular function. Rotary chair, calorics, electronystagmography, and computerized posturography
  • Ophthalmology. Funduscopy, visual acuity, visual field (Goldmann perimetry), and electroretinography (ERG)
  • Clinical genetics. Consultation with a clinical geneticist and/or genetic counselor

Treatment of Manifestations

Hearing. Hearing aids are usually ineffectual in individuals with Usher syndrome type I because of the severity of the hearing loss.

Cochlear implantation should be seriously considered, especially for young children [Damen et al 2006, Pennings et al 2006, Liu et al 2008].

Communication skills may be optimized if all family members, as well as affected children, receive specialized training from educators of the hearing impaired.

Balance. Tunnel vision and night blindness can combine with vestibular areflexia to predispose affected individuals to accidental injury.

Well-supervised sports activities may help a person with Usher syndrome type I to compensate by becoming more adept at using the somatosensory component of the balance system.

Vision. See Retinitis Pigmentosa Overview, Management.

Communication by sign language and lip reading becomes increasingly difficult over time as the retinitis pigmentosa (RP) progresses. Vision loss may progress to the point that the individual with Usher syndrome type I can only communicate through tactile signing.

Surveillance

Routine ophthalmologic evaluation is recommended to detect potentially treatable complications such as cataracts.

Agents/Circumstances to Avoid

Competition in sports requiring acute vision and/or good balance may be difficult and possibly dangerous.

Persons with Usher syndrome type I often become disoriented when submerged in water because they lack the sense of where "up" is; they should therefore exercise caution while swimming.

Progressive loss of peripheral vision impairs the ability to safely drive a car.

Evaluation of Relatives at Risk

It is appropriate to evaluate the hearing of all sibs at risk for Usher syndrome type I as soon after birth as possible to allow early diagnosis and treatment of hearing impairment.

Evaluations can include:

  • Molecular genetic testing if the pathogenic variants in the family are known.
  • Auditory brain stem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) if the pathogenic variants in the family are not known.

See Genetic Counseling for issues related to testing of at-risk relatives for genetic counseling purposes.

Therapies Under Investigation

Search ClinicalTrials.gov in the US and www.ClinicalTrialsRegister.eu in Europe for access to information on clinical studies for a wide range of diseases and conditions. Note: There may not be clinical trials for this disorder.

Other

Hearing aids are usually ineffectual in individuals with Usher syndrome type I because of the severity of the hearing loss.

Vitamin A supplements. Although treatment with vitamin A palmitate may limit the progression of RP in persons with isolated RP and Usher syndrome type II, no studies have evaluated the effectiveness of vitamin A palmitate in individuals with Usher syndrome type I. Vitamin A is fat soluble and not excreted in the urine. Therefore, high-dose vitamin A dietary supplements should be used only under the direction of a physician because of the need to monitor for harmful side effects such as hepatotoxicity. Of note, the studies by Berson et al [1993] were performed on individuals older than age 18 years because of the unknown effects of high-dose vitamin A on children. High-dose vitamin A supplementation should not be used by affected pregnant women, as large doses of vitamin A (i.e., above the recommended daily allowance for pregnant or lactating women) may be teratogenic to the developing fetus.

Lutein supplements. Oral administration of lutein (20 mg/d) for seven months had no effect on central vision; however, long-term effects are unknown [Aleman et al 2001].

Genetic Counseling

Genetic counseling is the process of providing individuals and families with information on the nature, inheritance, and implications of genetic disorders to help them make informed medical and personal decisions. The following section deals with genetic risk assessment and the use of family history and genetic testing to clarify genetic status for family members. This section is not meant to address all personal, cultural, or ethical issues that individuals may face or to substitute for consultation with a genetics professional. —ED.

Mode of Inheritance

Usher syndrome type I is typically inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

Non-monogenic inheritance of Usher syndrome type I appears to be rare, although a few affected individuals with heterozygous pathogenic variants in two or three different genes associated with Usher syndrome have been reported, suggesting the possibility of digenic or oligogenic inheritance. Other affected individuals have been found with two pathogenic variants in USH1 and another pathogenic variant in a second gene associated with Usher syndrome, which may modify the phenotype [Zheng et al 2005, Bonnet et al 2011, Vozzi et al 2011, Yoshimura et al 2014] (see Molecular Genetics).

Risk to Family Members

Parents of a proband

  • The unaffected parents of an individual with Usher syndrome type I are obligate heterozygotes (i.e., carriers of one pathogenic variant in an Usher syndrome type I-related gene).
  • Heterozygotes (carriers) are asymptomatic and are not at risk of developing the disorder.

Sibs of a proband

  • At conception, each sib of an affected individual has a 25% chance of being affected, a 50% chance of being an unaffected carrier, and a 25% chance of being unaffected and not a carrier.
  • Heterozygotes (carriers) are asymptomatic and are not at risk of developing the disorder.

Offspring of a proband

  • Unless an individual with Usher-syndrome type I has children with an affected individual or a carrier, his/her offspring will be obligate heterozygotes (carriers) for a pathogenic variant in an Usher-syndrome type I-related gene.
  • Assuming that: (1) the prevalence of Usher syndrome is one in 20,000, (2) 25% of individuals with Usher syndrome have type I, and (3) 50% of individuals with Usher syndrome type I have biallelic pathogenic variants in MYO7, the population carrier frequency is approximately one in 200 for an MYO7 pathogenic variant. Thus, for each pregnancy of a couple in which one partner has Usher syndrome type I and the other partner has normal hearing and no family history of Usher syndrome, the probability of a child having Usher syndrome due to biallelic pathogenic variants in MYO7 is one in 800. When similar calculations are done for the other molecular etiologies of USH1, the total probability of this couple having a child with Usher syndrome type I is approximately one in 500. (Note that this probability would not be correct if both parents are of Acadian or Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.)

Other family members of a proband. Each sib of the proband's parents is at a 50% risk of being a carrier of a pathogenic variant in an Usher-syndrome type I-related gene.

Carrier (Heterozygote) Detection

Carrier testing for at-risk relatives requires prior identification of the Usher-syndrome type I-related pathogenic variants in the family.

Related Genetic Counseling Issues

See Management, Evaluation of Relatives at Risk for information on evaluating at-risk relatives for the purpose of early diagnosis and treatment.

Family planning

  • The optimal time for determination of genetic risk, clarification of carrier status, and discussion of the availability of prenatal testing is before pregnancy.
  • It is appropriate to offer genetic counseling (including discussion of potential risks to offspring and reproductive options) to young adults who are affected, are carriers, or are at risk of being carriers.

DNA banking is the storage of DNA (typically extracted from white blood cells) for possible future use. Because it is likely that testing methodology and our understanding of genes, allelic variants, and diseases will improve in the future, consideration should be given to banking DNA of affected individuals.

Prenatal Testing and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

Once the Usher syndrome-related pathogenic variants have been identified in an affected family member, prenatal testing for a pregnancy at increased risk and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Usher syndrome type I are possible.

Differences in perspective may exist among medical professionals and within families regarding the use of prenatal testing, particularly if the testing is being considered for the purpose of pregnancy termination rather than early diagnosis. While most centers would consider decisions regarding prenatal testing to be the choice of the parents, discussion of these issues is appropriate.

Resources

GeneReviews staff has selected the following disease-specific and/or umbrella support organizations and/or registries for the benefit of individuals with this disorder and their families. GeneReviews is not responsible for the information provided by other organizations. For information on selection criteria, click here.

  • My46 Trait Profile
  • National Library of Medicine Genetics Home Reference
  • Usher Syndrome Coalition
    Phone: 978-637-2625; 617-951-9542
    Email: k.vasi@usher-syndrome.org; m.dunning@lek.com
  • Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
    3417 Volta Place Northwest
    Washington DC 20007
    Phone: 866-337-5220 (toll-free); 202-337-5220; 202-337-5221 (TTY)
    Fax: 202-337-8314
    Email: info@agbell.org
  • American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC)
    800 Florida Avenue Northeast
    Suite 2047
    Washington DC 20002-3695
    Phone: 800-942-2732 (Toll-free Parent Hotline); 866-895-4206 (toll free voice/TTY)
    Fax: 410-795-0965
    Email: info@deafchildren.org; asdc@deafchildren.org
  • BabyHearing.org
    This site, developed with support from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, provides information about newborn hearing screening and hearing loss.
  • Ciliopathy Alliance
    United Kingdom
    Phone: 44 20 7387 0543
  • Foundation Fighting Blindness
    11435 Cronhill Drive
    Owings Mills MD 21117-2220
    Phone: 800-683-5555 (toll-free); 800-683-5551 (toll-free TDD); 410-568-0150
    Email: info@fightblindness.org
  • National Association of the Deaf (NAD)
    8630 Fenton Street
    Suite 820
    Silver Spring MD 20910
    Phone: 301-587-1788; 301-587-1789 (TTY)
    Fax: 301-587-1791
    Email: nad.info@nad.org
  • SENSE
    101 Pentonville Road
    London N1 9LG
    United Kingdom
    Phone: 0845 127 0060 (voice); 0845 127 0062 (textphone)
    Fax: 0845 127 0061
    Email: info@sense.org.uk
  • Usher Syndrome Registry
    Usher Syndrome Coalition
    Phone: 978-637-2625
    Email: k.vasi@usher-syndrome.org

Molecular Genetics

Information in the Molecular Genetics and OMIM tables may differ from that elsewhere in the GeneReview: tables may contain more recent information. —ED.

Table A.

Usher Syndrome Type I: Genes and Databases

Data are compiled from the following standard references: gene from HGNC; chromosome locus from OMIM; protein from UniProt. For a description of databases (Locus Specific, HGMD, ClinVar) to which links are provided, click here.

Table B.

OMIM Entries for Usher Syndrome Type I (View All in OMIM)

276900USHER SYNDROME, TYPE I; USH1
276903MYOSIN VIIA; MYO7A
276904USHER SYNDROME, TYPE IC; USH1C
601067USHER SYNDROME, TYPE ID; USH1D
602083USHER SYNDROME, TYPE IF; USH1F
602097USHER SYNDROME, TYPE IE; USH1E
605242USH1C GENE; USH1C
605514PROTOCADHERIN 15; PCDH15
605516CADHERIN 23; CDH23
605564CALCIUM- AND INTEGRIN-BINDING PROTEIN 2; CIB2
606943USHER SYNDROME, TYPE IG; USH1G
607696USH1G GENE; USH1G
612632USHER SYNDROME, TYPE IH; USH1H
614869USHER SYNDROME, TYPE IJ; USH1J
614990USHER SYNDROME, TYPE IK; USH1K

Molecular Genetic Pathogenesis

The six known USH1 proteins are hypothesized to interact with one another, with the PDZ domains of harmonin playing a central role in this network. PDZ represents an acronym for the first proteins recognized with these interaction domains: PSD-95, Discs-large, and ZO-1 [Hung & Sheng 2002]. PDZ domain proteins have functions in localizing and organizing the assembly of larger protein complexes at the plasma membrane for functions such as signal transduction, cell adhesion, and subcellular transport [Hung & Sheng 2002].

If any one of the molecules in this "Usher interactome" is nonfunctional or absent, sensorineural degeneration occurs in the inner ear and the retina. The USH2 proteins are also integrated into this network [Adato et al 2005, Reiners et al 2006, Senften et al 2006, Kazmierczak et al 2007, Michalski et al 2007, Maerker et al 2008, Grillet et al 2009, Grati & Kachar 2011, Riazuddin et al 2012, Blanco-Sánchez et al 2014, Zou et al 2014, Mathur & Yang 2015].

Digenic inheritance and/or disease-modifier genes. Usher syndrome type I was reported in an individual of Asian ancestry from Japan with heterozygous pathogenic variants in two USH1-related genes (p.Ala771Ser in MYO7A and c.158-1G>A in PCDH15), suggesting digenic inheritance [Yoshimura et al 2014].

Usher syndrome type I was reported in four individuals with heterozygous pathogenic variants in CDH23 and PCDH15, suggesting digenic inheritance [Zheng et al 2005, Vozzi et al 2011]. One white individual was heterozygous for the pathogenic variants c.5601_5603delAAC in PCDH15 and c.193delC in CDH23. One individual of European descent was heterozygous for the pathogenic variants c.16delT in PCDH15 and p.Arg3189Trp in CDH23. Two individuals (one of African ancestry and the other from Italy) were both heterozygous for the pathogenic variant c.5601_5603delAAC in PCDH15; in addition, the individual of African ancestry was homozygous for the p.Thr1209Ala pathogenic variant in CDH23 while the individual of Italian ancestry was heterozygous for this variant.

Usher syndrome type 1 was reported in one individual from France with heterozygous, likely pathogenic variants in three different Usher syndrome genes (p.Leu2186Pro in MYO7A; p.Leu16Val in USH1G; and p.Cys3307Trp in USH2A) [Bonnet et al 2011], suggesting oligogenic inheritance. Segregation of these variants in this individual’s family members was consistent with the combination of monoallelic (heterozygous) variants in three different genes resulting in Usher syndrome.

Usher syndrome type 1 was reported in four individuals of Asian ancestry from Japan [Yoshimura et al 2014]. Two individuals had two pathogenic variants in MYO7A and one pathogenic variant in PCDH15. One individual had two pathogenic variants in CDH15 and one pathogenic variant in USH1C; and one individual had two pathogenic variants in PCDH15 and one pathogenic variant in USH1G. Three of these individuals presented with earlier-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP), suggesting that the monoallelic variant could be a disease modifier in these individuals.

Usher syndrome type 1 was reported in five individuals from France with biallelic pathogenic variants in one USH1-related gene and one or two probably pathogenic variants in another Usher syndrome gene [Bonnet et al 2011]. One individual had two pathogenic variants in MYO7A (p.Arg2024Ter + p.Gly519Asp) and one probably pathogenic variant in CDH23 (p.Arg1060Trp); one individual had two pathogenic variants in MYO7A (c.223delG + p.Arg1240Gln) and one probably pathogenic variant in USH1C (p.Arg357Trp); one individual was homozygous for a pathogenic variant in MYO7A (c.2283-1G>T) and heterozygous for one probably pathogenic variant in the USH2-related gene ADGRV1 (p.Asp4707Tyr); one individual was homozygous for a pathogenic variant in MYO7A (p.Tyr1302fsTer97) and had one probably pathogenic variant in both USH2A (p.Gly1301Val) and ADGRV1 (p.Gln5459His); one individual was homozygous for a pathogenic variant in USH1C (p.Arg80fsTer69) and one probably pathogenic variant in CDH23 (p.Arg3043Trp). It is suggested in this study that a substantial number of individuals with USH1 carry at least one probably pathogenic variant in another Usher syndrome gene that could modify their disease.

Note: A comprehensive set of databases (UMD-USHbases) provides information about pathogenic variants responsible for Usher syndrome [Baux et al 2008].

MYO7A

Gene structure. MYO7A contains 49 exons and spans a genomic region of approximately 87 kb. There are seven different transcripts, the longest being 7.4 kb. For a detailed summary of gene and protein information, see Table A, Gene.

Pathogenic variants. More than 300 pathogenic variants have been reported in MYO7A. They are located throughout the gene, although many are clustered in the exons that encode conserved domains of the protein [Bonnet et al 2011, Roux et al 2011, Le Quesne Stabej et al 2012].

Table 2.

MYO7A Pathogenic Variants Discussed in This GeneReview

DNA Nucleotide ChangePredicted Protein ChangeReference Sequences
c.223delGp.Asp75ThrfsTer31NM_000260​.3
NP_000251​.3
c.1556G>Ap.Gly519Asp
c.1952T>Cp.Leu651Pro
c.2283-1G>Tp.Ser762CysfsTer61
c.2311G>Tp.Ala771Ser
c.3719G>Ap.Arg1240Gln
c.4805G>Ap.Arg1602Gln
c.6070C>Tp.Arg2024Ter
c.6557T>Cp.Leu2186Pro

Note on variant classification: Variants listed in the table have been provided by the authors. GeneReviews staff have not independently verified the classification of variants.

Note on nomenclature: GeneReviews follows the standard naming conventions of the Human Genome Variation Society (varnomen​.hgvs.org). See Quick Reference for an explanation of nomenclature.

Normal gene product. The myosin VIIa protein belongs to a group of unconventional (non-muscle) myosins, which are ATP-driven motor molecules. Pathogenic variants in mouse Myo7a were found in shaker-1 (sh1) mice; sh1 mice are deaf and have vestibular areflexia but no RP, although they do have mild ERG abnormalities [Libby & Steel 2001].

Studies of the sh1 mouse model have determined the role that myosin VIIa plays in cochlear hair cell development and/or function. The stereociliary hair bundle at the top of the hair cell is filled with actin; myosin VIIa is believed to be attached to the actin-rich network within the hair cell bundle. Myosin VIIa may be required for structural organization of the hair cell bundles and may anchor or control the stereocilia [Self et al 1998]. Major functional abnormalities in stereocilia that interfere with proper sound transduction were identified in two distinct sh-1 mutant mice [Kros et al 2002].

The C-terminal FERM domain of myosin VIIa binds to a novel transmembrane protein, vezatin (a component of adherens junctions) [Küssel-Andermann et al 2000] and harmonin b, which in turn binds to both cadherin-23 and the f-actin microfilaments, forming a protein complex in the stereocilia of hair cells [Boëda et al 2002]. Mutated myosin VIIa causes defective distribution of melanosomes in the shaker-1 retina [Liu et al 1998b]. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments and transport of the ingested disks to the base of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is abnormal in the sh-1 mouse [Gibbs et al 2003]. Opsin and myosin VIIa were shown to co-localize within the ciliary membrane of the inner and outer segments of rod photoreceptors. Furthermore, actin was identified in the photoreceptor cilium, which is spatially co-localized with myosin VIIa and opsin, suggesting that the actin cytoskeleton of the cilium may provide the structural bases for myosin VIIa-linked trafficking of membrane components, including rhodopsin, from the inner to the outer segments [Wolfrum & Schmitt 2000].

Abnormal gene product. See Molecular Genetic Pathogenesis.

Although the majority of MYO7A pathogenic variants are expected to result in a prematurely truncated non-functional protein (frameshift, nonsense, splice site), a relatively high percentage (37%) are pathogenic missense variants [Roux et al 2011].

USH1C

Gene structure. USH1C has 28 exons spanning 51 kb of genomic sequence with at least eight distinct transcripts found in mouse vestibule mRNA through the alternative use of eight exons (exon 15, exons A-G) and alternative splicing [Verpy et al 2000]. For a detailed summary of gene and protein information, see Table A, Gene.

Benign variants. One allele of a polymorphic 45-nucleotide variable number of tandem repeats c.496+59_496+103[9] present in intron 5 was found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium with an Acadian founder USH1C variant c.216G>A (see Table 3) [Savas et al 2002].

Pathogenic variants. See Table 3. The first USH1C pathogenic variants identified include the Acadian founder variant c.216G>A, which was shown to create a cryptic splice donor in exon 3 affecting mRNA stability and usage of the normal exon 3 splice donor [Bitner-Glindzicz et al 2000, Lentz et al 2005].

The most common USH1C pathogenic variant observed in persons from other ethnic origins is c.238dupC [Bitner-Glindzicz et al 2000, Verpy et al 2000, Zwaenepoel et al 2001, Ahmed et al 2002, Blaydon et al 2003, Ouyang et al 2003]. Outside the Acadian population of Louisiana, the total contribution of USH1C pathogenic variants to the Usher syndrome type I phenotype ranges from 1.65% to 12.5% [Blaydon et al 2003, Ouyang et al 2003].

More than 30 pathogenic variants have now been reported, most of them either located in an exon encoding a PDZ domain of the protein or affecting splicing [Bonnet et al 2011, Roux et al 2011, Le Quesne Stabej et al 2012]. A study of Usher syndrome type I in Spain identified two new pathogenic variants (1 nonsense and 1 frameshift) and estimated that USH1C pathogenic variants are responsible for 1.5% of Usher syndrome type I in the Spanish population [Aparisi et al 2010].

Table 3.

USH1C Variants Discussed in This GeneReview

Variant ClassificationDNA Nucleotide ChangePredicted Protein ChangeReference Sequences
Benignc.496+59_496+103[9]No impact on proteinNM_005709​.3
NP_005700​.2
Pathogenicc.216G>A 1p.Val72GlufsTer65
c.238dupCp.Arg80ProfsTer69

Note on variant classification: Variants listed in the table have been provided by the authors. GeneReviews staff have not independently verified the classification of variants.

Note on nomenclature: GeneReviews follows the standard naming conventions of the Human Genome Variation Society (varnomen​.hgvs.org). See Quick Reference for an explanation of nomenclature.

1.

G to A change in exon 3 created a new splice site, resulting in a 35-bp deletion in exon 3 [Bitner-Glindzicz et al 2000, Lentz et al 2005].

Normal gene product. The harmonin protein (from harmonia, Greek for "assembling") was the first member of a large and diverse group of PDZ-domain-containing proteins shown to be associated with human disease.

There are three isoform classes of harmonin, named a, b, and c, depending on the number of PDZ and coiled-coiled domains and the presence or absence of a PST (proline, serine, threonine-rich) domain. These three functional domains participate in protein-protein interactions, which are proposed to be important to its putative functions in the ear and eye. In most tissues, harmonin is expressed as isoform a and/or c.

The domain structure of the long harmonin b isoform includes two PDZ domains, followed by two coiled-coil motifs, one PST domain, and a third PDZ domain [Verpy et al 2000].

  • In the developing ear, harmonin b has been found within the differentiating hair cells and at the tips of the growing stereociliary bundle.
  • In the mature adult ear, isoform b disappears, and isoforms a and c are found along the stereocilia and within the hair cell, particularly at the base of the stereocilia and at the synapse [Verpy et al 2000, Boëda et al 2002, Reiners et al 2006].
  • In the eye, harmonin isoforms have been found in all compartments of the neural retina [Verpy et al 2000, Williams et al 2009].

Several binding studies have found an interaction between the Usher 1 proteins, suggesting that harmonin plays a central role in the network. The PDZ2 domain of harmonin has a high affinity for the intracellular COOH terminal PDZ-binding interface (PBI) of the USH1D gene product cadherin-23 [Boëda et al 2002, Siemens et al 2002]. The PDZ1 domain of harmonin b interacts with an internal PBI of cadherin-23, the tail portion of myosin VIIa and USH1G protein, while the COOH half of harmonin b containing PZD3 bundles f-actin microfilaments [Boëda et al 2002, Siemens et al 2002, Weil et al 2003]. These data – along with the inner ear histology and physiology of the mouse mutants of Myo7a, Cdh23, Sans, and Pdch15 – implicate these proteins as forming a critical macromolecular complex necessary for the development of stereocilia structure and function [Boëda et al 2002].

Abnormal gene product. See Molecular Genetic Pathogenesis.

CDH23

Gene structure. CDH23 has 70 exons and spans more than 400 kb of genomic sequence [Astuto et al 2002]. At least two normal transcripts exist and differ by the inclusion or exclusion of the 105-nucleotide exon 68 [Bork et al 2001, Di Palma et al 2001]. The +68 isoform adds 35 amino acids to the intracellular tail of the cadherin-23 protein [Siemens et al 2002]. For a detailed summary of gene and protein information, see Table A, Gene.

Pathogenic variants. More than 230 pathogenic variants have been reported in CDH23 [Bonnet et al 2011, Roux et al 2011, Le Quesne Stabej et al 2012]. Most of the pathogenic variants are null (nonsense, frameshift, splice site) and result in a more severe phenotype than some pathogenic missense variants. A large deletion resulting in the loss of three exons was reported in an affected individual of Japanese ancestry [Nakanishi et al 2010].

Table 4.

CDH23 Variants Discussed in This GeneReview

Variant ClassificationDNA Nucleotide ChangePredicted Protein ChangeReference Sequences
Likely pathogenicc.3178C>Tp.Arg1060TrpNM_022124​.5
NP_071407​.4
c.9127C>Tp.Arg3043Trp
Pathogenicc.3625A>Gp.Thr1209Ala
c.9565C>Tp.Arg3189Trp

Note on variant classification: Variants listed in the table have been provided by the authors. GeneReviews staff have not independently verified the classification of variants.

Note on nomenclature: GeneReviews follows the standard naming conventions of the Human Genome Variation Society (varnomen​.hgvs.org). See Quick Reference for an explanation of nomenclature.

Normal gene product. Cadherin-23 is a member of the superfamily of glycosylated transmembrane proteins known to be involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell sorting, and cell migration during development and in differentiated tissues. Cadherin extracellular domains have repeated and varying numbers of cadherin-like motifs (ectodomains) that form Ca2+-dependent lateral homophilic binding interactions. Cadherin-23 has 3,354 amino acids and 27 EC domains, one helical transmembrane domain and an intracellular tail having one internal and one COOH-terminal PDZ binding interface (PBI) [Siemens et al 2002]. The PDZ2 domain of harmonin has a high affinity for the COOH terminal PBI of cadherin-23 [Boëda et al 2002, Siemens et al 2002].

The +68 protein inner-ear-specific isoform disrupts binding of harmonin PDZ1 to an internal PBI, suggesting a tissue-specific difference in the interaction between cadherin-23 and harmonin in the inner ear and retina [Siemens et al 2002]. Cadherin-23 makes up the upper part of the tip links of the hair cell stereocilia and directly binds to the tail of myosin VIIa. These two proteins together with harmonin form a ternary complex; thus, it is likely that myosin VIIa applies tension forces on the hair bundle links [Bahloul et al 2010].

Abnormal gene product. See Molecular Genetic Pathogenesis.

Many of the pathogenic missense variants in CDH23 occur in the ectodomains disrupting putative Ca2+ binding sites, which may therefore affect proper tertiary structure and rigidity of the extracellular domain [Astuto et al 2002].

Compound heterozygotes for one USH1D-associated allele and one DFNB12-associated allele are deaf, but vision and balance are preserved; they do not have USH1 [Schultz et al 2011].

PCDH15

Gene structure. PCDH15 has 33 exons, with the start codon residing in the second exon; it spans close to a megabase of genomic sequence. PCDH15 was implicated as the USH1F-associated gene by the observation of orthologous mouse variants in the Ames waltzer deafness mouse [Alagramam et al 2001a]. For a detailed summary of gene and protein information, see Table A, Gene.

Pathogenic variants. See Table 5. Approximately 80 different pathogenic variants have been reported [Bonnet et al 2011, Roux et al 2011, Le Quesne Stabej et al 2012]. Many of the single-nucleotide variants are private and null; no mutational hot spots have been identified [Jaijo et al 2012]. Large deletions and duplications within PCDH15 are a significant cause of USH1F [Le Guédard et al 2007, Aller et al 2010].

The Ashkenazi Jewish founder variant c.733C>T has a carrier frequency in the Jewish population (0.79%-2.48%) similar to that for other genetic disorders for which routine screening is performed in this population, including Tay-Sachs disease (3%-4%), Gaucher disease (4%-6%), and Canavan disease (1%-2%) [Ben-Yosef et al 2003].

Table 5.

PCDH15 Pathogenic Variants Discussed in This GeneReview

DNA Nucleotide ChangePredicted Protein ChangeReference Sequences
c.733C>Tp.Arg245TerNM_033056​.3
NP_149045​.3
c.5601_5603delAACp.Thr1867del

Note on variant classification: Variants listed in the table have been provided by the authors. GeneReviews staff have not independently verified the classification of variants.

Note on nomenclature: GeneReviews follows the standard naming conventions of the Human Genome Variation Society (varnomen​.hgvs.org). See Quick Reference for an explanation of nomenclature.

Normal gene product. Protocadherins are a large family of non-classic cadherins that are structurally and functionally divergent from the classic cadherins. The functions of some members include planar polarity determination, neural development, neural circuit formation, and formation of the synapse. Protocadherin 15 is a putative cell surface integral membrane protein; it has 1,955 amino acids, 11 extracellular cadherin-like ectodomains, one transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing two proline-rich regions. Immunohistochemistry shows protocadherin 15 localized to distinct structures in the developing mouse inner ear and human retina, as well as expression of mRNA from several adult human tissues including brain, lung, spleen, and kidney [Alagramam et al 2001b]. Because the earliest defects observed in Ames waltzer mice are morphologic stereociliary bundle defects, including bundles rotated up to 90° from the normal orientation, it has been suggested that protocadherin 15 may participate in the development of planar polarity of stereocilia organization on the apical surface of hair cells and is therefore similar in function to other non-classic cadherins [Alagramam et al 2001b, Raphael et al 2001]. In particular, protocadherin 15 is specifically associated with the tip-links that connect the stereocilia [Ahmed et al 2006].

Abnormal gene product. See Molecular Genetic Pathogenesis.

USH1G

Gene structure. USH1G comprises three exons, with the third exon including only the TAA stop codon. It spans 7.2 kb of genomic sequence. For a detailed summary of gene and protein information, see Table A, Gene.

Pathogenic variants. See Table 6. Approximately 20 pathogenic variants have been reported [Bonnet et al 2011, Roux et al 2011, Le Quesne Stabej et al 2012]. A 20-nucleotide homozygous deletion (p.Ser278ProfsTer71) was found in the original consanguineous Palestinian family that defined the linkage of USH1G to chromosome 17q [Mustapha et al 2002]. A second homozygous pathogenic variant (p.Val132GlyfsTer3) was found in a large consanguineous Tunisian family [Weil et al 2003]. Additional USH1G pathogenic variants have been identified in individuals with Usher syndrome [Weil et al 2003, Imtiaz et al 2012].

Table 6.

USH1G Pathogenic Variants Discussed in This GeneReview

DNA Nucleotide Change
(Alias 1)
Predicted Protein ChangeReference Sequences
c.394dupG
(c.393insG)
p.Val132GlyfsTer3NM_033056​.3
NP_149045​.3
c.832_851del
(c.828-849del20)
p.Ser278ProfsTer71NM_173477​.2
NP_775748​.2

Note on variant classification: Variants listed in the table have been provided by the authors. GeneReviews staff have not independently verified the classification of variants.

Note on nomenclature: GeneReviews follows the standard naming conventions of the Human Genome Variation Society (varnomen​.hgvs.org). See Quick Reference for an explanation of nomenclature.

1.

Variant designation that does not conform to current naming conventions

Normal gene product. USH1G encodes a novel protein of 461 amino acids with three ankyrin (Ank) repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain near the NH2- and COOH-termini, respectively [Kikkawa et al 2003, Weil et al 2003]. High expression levels were localized to the inner and outer hair cells. The function of proteins with similarity to Usher syndrome type-1G protein (also known as sans) suggests a role either in postsynaptic specialization or as an anchoring/scaffolding protein in hair cells [Kikkawa et al 2003]. In co-transfection experiments, the PDZ1 domain of harmonin interacted with the PBI carboxy-terminus of sans, suggesting that sans is another macromolecular component of the Usher interactome, and is necessary for proper development and maintenance of the stereocilia of hair cells [Weil et al 2003, Yan et al 2010].

Abnormal gene product. See Molecular Genetic Pathogenesis.

The retinal phenotype is quite variable among individuals with Usher syndrome type IG, perhaps due in part to the location of the pathogenic variant and its effect on the encoded protein.

CIB2

Gene structure. CIB2 has six exons spanning 26 kb of genomic sequence; it encodes three alternatively spliced isoforms. For a detailed summary of gene and protein information, see Table A, Gene.

Pathogenic variants. A single base pair variant, c.192G>C, was found in a homozygous state in affected individuals from a large consanguineous Pakistani family [Riazuddin et al 2012].

Table 7.

CIB2 Pathogenic Variants Discussed in This GeneReview

DNA Nucleotide ChangePredicted Protein ChangeReference Sequences
c.192G>Cp.Glu64AspNM_006383​.3
NP_006374​.1

Note on variant classification: Variants listed in the table have been provided by the authors. GeneReviews staff have not independently verified the classification of variants.

Note on nomenclature: GeneReviews follows the standard naming conventions of the Human Genome Variation Society (varnomen​.hgvs.org). See Quick Reference for an explanation of nomenclature.

Normal gene product. CIB2 encodes a calcium- and integrin-binding protein with the largest isoform consisting of 210 amino acids. It contains three or four EF-hand domains that change conformation upon binding calcium and are hypothesized to mediate intracellular calcium signaling. CIB2 mRNA expression has been detected in both human and mouse tissues including the inner ear and retina. In the mouse ear, developmental CIB2 expression has been localized to supporting cells of the organ of Corti and vestibular epithelia and adult expression has been localized to the stereocilia of the organ of Corti and vestibular hair cells. CIB2 has been shown to interact with Usher proteins whirlin and myosin VIIa; thus, it is a member of the Usher interactome [Riazuddin et al 2012].

Abnormal gene product. See Molecular Genetic Pathogenesis.

The c.192G>C (p.Glu64Asp) pathogenic variant affects all three isoforms of CIB2. Riazuddin et al [2012] suggest that this Glu64 substitution may weaken the interaction of CIB2 with integrin, which would affect integrin activation and perhaps also calcium binding.

References

Published Guidelines/Consensus Statements

  • American College of Medical Genetics. Statement on universal newborn hearing screening. Available online. 2000. Accessed 7-26-18.
  • American College of Medical Genetics Genetic Evaluation of Congenital Hearing Loss Expert Panel. Genetics evaluation guidelines for the etiologic diagnosis of congenital hearing loss. Available online. 2002. Accessed 7-26-18.

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Suggested Reading

  • Cohen M, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Luxon L. The changing face of Usher syndrome: Clinical implications. Int J Audiol. 2007;46:82–93. [PubMed: 17365059]
  • Fakin A, Jarc-Vidmar M, Glavac D, Bonnet C, Petit C, Hawlina M. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography in relation to visual function in Usher syndrome type 1 and 2. Vision Res. 2012;75:60–70. [PubMed: 23000274]
  • Goldmann T, Overlack N, Moller F, Belakhov V, van Wyk M, Baasov T, Wolfrum U, Nagel-Wolfrum K. A comparative evaluation of HB30, NB54 and PTC124 in translational read-through efficacy for treatment of an USH1C nonsense mutation. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:1186–99. [PMC free article: PMC3494875] [PubMed: 23027640]
  • Jacobson SG, Cideciyan AV, Gibbs D, Sumaroka A, Roman AJ, Aleman TS, Schwartz SB, Olivares MB, Russell RC, Steinberg JD, Kenna MA, Kimberling WJ, Rehm HL, Williams DS. Retinal disease course in Usher syndrome 1B due to MYO7A mutations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7924–36. [PMC free article: PMC3263772] [PubMed: 21873662]
  • Lentz JJ, Jodelka FM, Hinrich AJ, McCaffrey KE, Farris HE, Spalitta MJ, Bazan NG, Duelli DM, Rigo F, Hastings ML. Rescue of hearing and vestibular function by antisense oligonucleotides in a mouse model of human deafness. Nat Med. 2013;19:345–50. [PMC free article: PMC3657744] [PubMed: 23380860]
  • Malm E, Pojavic V, Moller C, Kimberling WJ, Andreasson S. Phenotypes in defined genotypes including siblings with Usher syndrome. Ophthalmic Genet. 2011a;32:65–74. [PubMed: 21174530]
  • Malm E, Ponjavic V, Möller C, Kimberling WJ, Stone ES, Andréasson S. Alteration of rod and cone function in children with Usher syndrome. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011b;21:30–8. [PubMed: 20544672]
  • Mathur P, Yang J. Usher syndrome: Hearing loss, retinal degeneration and associated abnormalities. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1852:406–20. [PMC free article: PMC4312720] [PubMed: 25481835]
  • Overlack N, Goldmann T, Wolfrum U, Nagel-Wolfrum K. Gene repair of an Usher syndrome causing mutation by zinc-finger nuclease mediated homologous recombination. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4140–6. [PubMed: 22661463]
  • Pan L, Zhang M. Structure of Usher Syndrome 1 proteins and their complexes. Physiology. 2012;27:25–42. [PubMed: 22311968]
  • Sahly I, Dufour E, Schietroma C, Michel V, Bahloul A, Perfettini I, Pepermans E, Estivalet A, Carette D, Aghaie A, Ebermann I, Lelli A, Iribarne M, Hardelin JP, Weil D, Sahel JA, El-Amraoui A, Petit C. Localization of Usher 1 proteins to the photoreceptor calyceal processes, which are absent from mice. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:381–99. [PMC free article: PMC3471240] [PubMed: 23045546]
  • Williams DS, Lopes VS. Gene therapy strategies for Usher syndrome type IB. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:235–42. [PubMed: 22183338]

Chapter Notes

Acknowledgments

Edward Cohn, MD, Department of Otolaryngology, Boys Town National Research Hospital

Janos Sumegi, PhD, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha

Claes Möller, MD, PhD, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden

Research supported by FFB and NIH

Author History

Bronya Keats, PhD (2006-present)
William J Kimberling, PhD, FACMG; Boys Town National Research Hospital (1999-2006)
Jennifer Lentz, PhD (2006-present)
Sandra Pieke-Dahl, PhD; Ohio State University (1999-2006)
Michael D Weston, MA; Boys Town National Research Hospital (1999-2006)

Revision History

  • 19 May 2016 (sw) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 20 June 2013 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 28 October 2010 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 29 June 2010 (cd) Revision: sequence analysis and prenatal testing available for USH1G; USHIH locus added
  • 28 May 2009 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 14 May 2008 (cd) Revision: prenatal testing available for CDH23
  • 10 December 2007 (cd) Revision: sequence analysis of exon 3 of USH1C available clinically
  • 5 November 2007 (cd) Revision: sequence analysis of the entire coding regions of PCDH15 (USH1F) and CDH23 (USH1D) available clinically
  • 7 November 2006 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 6 February 2004 (cd) Revision: change in gene name (SANS to USH1G)
  • 13 January 2004 (wk) Author revisions
  • 20 November 2003 (me) Comprehensive update posted live
  • 10 December 1999 (me) Review posted live
  • 19 February 1999 (wk) Original submission
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