The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexin 3 and related proteins
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. This subfamily is composed of SNX3, SNX12, and fungal Grd19. Grd19 is involved in the localization of late Golgi membrane proteins in yeast. SNX3/Grp19 associates with the retromer complex, a membrane coat multimeric complex required for endosomal retrieval of lysosomal hydrolase receptors to the Golgi, and functions as a cargo-specific adaptor for the retromer.
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.