The Phox Homology domain, a phosphoinositide binding module
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module involved in targeting proteins to membranes. Proteins containing PX domains interact with PIs and have been implicated in highly diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, lipid modification, cell polarity and division, activation of T and B cells, and cell survival. Many members of this superfamily bind phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) but in some cases, other PIs such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, among others, are the preferred substrates. In addition to protein-lipid interaction, the PX domain may also be involved in protein-protein interaction, as in the cases of p40phox, p47phox, and some sorting nexins (SNXs). The PX domain is conserved from yeast to humans and is found in more than 100 proteins. The majority of PX domain-containing proteins are SNXs, which play important roles in endosomal sorting.
Feature 1:phosphoinositide binding site [chemical binding site]
Comment:A majority of PX domain containing proteins binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) at this site. In some cases, other phosphoinositides, such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, are the preferred substrates.
Structure:1H6H_A; Human P40(phox) PX domain binds Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate; defined at 3.5A contacts. - View structure with Cn3D
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.