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Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids.

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FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE-NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS

Life Stage GroupCalcium (mg/d)Phosphorus (mg/d)Magnesium (mg/d)Vitamin D (mg/d) a , b Fluoride (mg/d)Thiamin (mg/d)
Infants
0–6 mo210*100*30*5*0.01*0.2*
7–12 mo270*275*75*5*0.5*0.3*
Children
1–3 y500*460805*0.7*0.5
4–8 y800*5001305*1*0.6
Males
9–13 y1,300*1,2502405*2*0.9
14–18 y1,300*1,2504105*3*1.2
19–30 y1,000*7004005*4*1.2
31–50 y1,000*7004205*4*1.2
51–70 y1,200*70042010*4*1.2
> 70 y1,200*70042015*4*1.2
Females
9–13 y1,3001,250*2405*2*0.9
14–18 y1,300*1,2503605*3*1.0
19–30 y1,000*7003105*3*1.1
31–50 y1,000*7003205*3*1.1
51–70 y1,200*70032010*3*1.1
> 70 y1,200*70032015*3*1.1
Pregnancy
≤18 y1300*1,2504005*3*1.4
19–30 y1,000*7003505*3*1.4
31–50 y1,000*7003605*3*1.4
Lactation
≤ 18 y1,300*1,2504005*3*1.4
19–30 y1,000*7003105*3*1.4
31–50 y1,000*7003205*3*1.4
Riboflavin (mg/d)Niacin (mg/d) c Vitamin B6 (mg/d)Folate (µg/d) d Vitamin B12 (µg/d)Pantothenic Acid (mg/d)Biotin (µg/d)
0.3*2*0.1*65*0.4*1.7*5*
0.4*4*0.3*80*0.5*1.8*6*
0.560.51500.92*8*
0.680.62001.23*12*
0.9121.03001.84*20*
1.3161.34002.45*25*
1.3161.34002.45*30*
1.3161.34002.45*30*
1.3161.74002.4 g 5*30*
1.3161.74002.4 g 5*30*
0.9121.03001.84*20*
1.0141.2400 h 2.45*25*
1.1141.3400 h 2.45*30*
1.1141.3400 h 2.45*30*
1.1141.54002.4 g 5*30*
1.1141.54002.4 g 5*30*
1.4181.9600 i 2.66*30*
1.4181.9600 i 2.66*30*
1.4181.9600 i 2.66*30*
1.6172.05002.87*35*
1.6172.05002.87*35*
1.6172.05002.87*35*

NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

a

As cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

b

In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.

c

As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

d

As dietasy folate equivalents (DFE) 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.6 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

e

Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of cholin is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

f

As α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRRα-tocopherol, the only form of αtocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRP-, SSR-, SRS-, SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified Ibods and supplements.

Choline e (mg/d)Vitamin C (mg/d)Vitamin E f (mg/d)Selenium (µg/d)Life Stage Group
Infants
125*40*4*15*0–6 mo
150*50*6*20*7–12 mo
Children
200*156201–3 y
250*257304–8 y
Males
375*4511409–13 y
550*75155514–18 y
550*90155519–30 y
550*90155531–50 y
550*90155551–70 y
550*901555> 70 y
Females
375*4511409–13 y
400*65155514–18 y
425*75155519–30 y
425*75155531–50 y
425*75155551–70 y
425*751555> 70 y
Pregnancy
450*801560≤ 18 y
450*85156019–30 y
450*85156031–50 y
Lactation
550*120197019–30 y
550*120197031–50 y
g

Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

h

In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

i

It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Bookshelf ID: NBK225472

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