cytochrome P450 family 158, subfamily A and similar cytochrome P450s
This family is composed of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) with similarity to Streptomyces coelicolor CYP158A1 and CYP158A2, Streptomyces natalensis PimD (also known as CYP107E), Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP121, and Micromonospora griseorubida MycG (also known as CYP107B). CYP158A1 and CYP158A2 catalyze an unusual oxidative C-C coupling reaction to polymerize flaviolin and form highly conjugated pigments; CYP158A2 produces three isomers of biflaviolin and one triflaviolin while CYP158A1 produces only two isomers of biflaviolin. PimD is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase with native epoxidase activity that is critical in the biosynthesis of the polyene macrolide antibiotic pimaricin. CYP121 is essential for the viability of M. tuberculosis and is a novel drug target for the inhibition of mycobacterial growth. MycG catalyzes both hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions in the biosynthesis of the 16-membered ring macrolide antibiotic mycinamicin II. This family belongs to the large cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) superfamily of heme-containing proteins that catalyze a variety of oxidative reactions of a large number of structurally different endogenous and exogenous compounds in organisms from all major domains of life. CYPs bind their diverse ligands in a buried, hydrophobic active site, which is accessed through a substrate access channel formed by two flexible helices and their connecting loop.