C2 domain third repeat found in Multiple C2 domain and Transmembrane region Proteins (MCTP)
MCTPs are involved in Ca2+ signaling at the membrane. The cds in this family contain multiple C2 domains as well as a C-terminal PRT domain. It is one of four protein classes that are anchored to membranes via a transmembrane region; the others being synaptotagmins, extended synaptotagmins, and ferlins. MCTPs are the only membrane-bound C2 domain proteins that contain two functional TMRs. MCTPs are unique in that they bind Ca2+ but not phospholipids. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions. This cd contains the third C2 repeat, C2C, and has a type-II topology.