Rap1 family GTPase consists of Rap1a and Rap1b isoformsThe Rap1 subgroup is part of the Rap subfamily of the Ras family. It can be further divided into the Rap1a and Rap1b isoforms. In humans, Rap1a and Rap1b share 95% sequence homology, but are products of two different genes located on chromosomes 1 and 12, respectively. Rap1a is sometimes called smg p21 or Krev1 in the older literature. Rap1 proteins are believed to perform different cellular functions, depending on the isoform, its subcellular localization, and the effector proteins it binds. For example, in rat salivary gland, neutrophils, and platelets, Rap1 localizes to secretory granules and is believed to regulate exocytosis or the formation of secretory granules. Rap1 has also been shown to localize in the Golgi of rat fibroblasts, zymogen granules, plasma membrane, and the microsomal membrane of pancreatic acini, as well as in the endocytic compartment of skeletal muscle cells and fibroblasts. High expression of Rap1 has been observed in the nucleus of human oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and cell lines; interestingly, in the SCCs, the active GTP-bound form localized to the nucleus, while the inactive GDP-bound form localized to the cytoplasm. Rap1 plays a role in phagocytosis by controlling the binding of adhesion receptors (typically integrins) to their ligands. In yeast, Rap1 has been implicated in multiple functions, including activation and silencing of transcription and maintenance of telomeres. Rap1a, which is stimulated by T-cell receptor (TCR) activation, is a positive regulator of T cells by directing integrin activation and augmenting lymphocyte responses. In murine hippocampal neurons, Rap1b determines which neurite will become the axon and directs the recruitment of Cdc42, which is required for formation of dendrites and axons. In murine platelets, Rap1b is required for normal homeostasis in vivo and is involved in integrin activation. Most Ras proteins contain a lipid modification site at the C-terminus, with a typical sequence motif CaaX, where a = an aliphatic amino acid and X = any amino acid. Lipid binding is essential for membrane attachment, a key feature of most Ras proteins. Due to the presence of truncated sequences in this CD, the lipid modification site is not available for annotation.