Wnt-1 responsive Cdc42 homolog (Wrch-1) is a Rho family GTPase similar to Cdc42
Wrch-1 (Wnt-1 responsive Cdc42 homolog) is a Rho family GTPase that shares significant sequence and functional similarity with Cdc42. Wrch-1 was first identified in mouse mammary epithelial cells, where its transcription is upregulated in Wnt-1 transformation. Wrch-1 contains N- and C-terminal extensions relative to cdc42, suggesting potential differences in cellular localization and function. The Wrch-1 N-terminal extension contains putative SH3 domain-binding motifs and has been shown to bind the SH3 domain-containing protein Grb2, which increases the level of active Wrch-1 in cells. Unlike Cdc42, which localizes to the cytosol and perinuclear membranes, Wrch-1 localizes extensively with the plasma membrane and endosomes. The membrane association, localization, and biological activity of Wrch-1 indicate an atypical model of regulation distinct from other Rho family GTPases. Most Rho proteins contain a lipid modification site at the C-terminus, with a typical sequence motif CaaX, where a = an aliphatic amino acid and X = any amino acid. Lipid binding is essential for membrane attachment, a key feature of most Rho proteins. Due to the presence of truncated sequences in this CD, the lipid modification site is not available for annotation.