C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in human dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and the related receptor, DC-SIGN receptor (DC-SIGNR)
CLECT_DC-SIGN_like: C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of the type found in human dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and the related receptor, DC-SIGN receptor (DC-SIGNR). This group also contains proteins similar to hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) and langerin in human. These proteins are type II membrane proteins with a CTLD ectodomain. CTLD refers to a domain homologous to the carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) of the C-type lectins. DC-SIGN is thought to mediate the initial contact between dendritic cells and resting T cells, and may also mediate the rolling of DCs on epithelium. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR bind to oligosaccharides present on human tissues, as well as, on pathogens including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR bind to HIV enhancing viral infection of T cells. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR are homotetrameric, and contain four CTLDs stabilized by a coiled coil of alpha helices. The hepatic ASGP-R is an endocytic recycling receptor which binds and internalizes desialylated glycoproteins having a terminal galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues on their N-linked carbohydrate chains, via the clathrin-coated pit mediated endocytic pathway, and delivers them to lysosomes for degradation. It has been proposed that glycoproteins bearing terminal Sia (sialic acid) alpha2, 6GalNAc and Sia alpha2, 6Gal are endogenous ligands for ASGP-R and that ASGP-R participates in regulating the relative concentration of serum glycoproteins bearing alpha 2,6-linked Sia. The human ASGP-R is a hetero-oligomer composed of two subunits, both of which are found within this group. Langerin is expressed in a subset of dendritic leukocytes, the Langerhans cells (LC). Langerin induces the formation of Birbeck Granules (BGs) and associates with these BGs following internalization. Langerin binds, in a calcium-dependent manner, to glyco-conjugates containing mannose and related sugars mediating their uptake and degradation. Langerin molecules oligomerize as trimers with three CTLDs held together by a coiled-coil of alpha helices.