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  1. Fang J, Li J, Chen X, Zhang Y, Wang J, Guo Z, Zhang W, Yu L, Brew K, Wang PG. Highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of alpha-galactosyl epitopes with a recombinant alpha(1,3)-galactosyltransferase. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1998 July; 120(27):6635-6638. doi: 10.1021/ja9808898.
  2. Zhang W, Xie W, Wang J, Chen X, Fang J, Chen Y, Li J, Yu L, Chen D, Wang PG. Recent progress in glycochemistry and green chemistry. Current organic chemistry. 1999; 3:241-267.
  3. Janczuk A, Li J, Zhang W, Chen X, Chen Y, Fang J, Wang J, Wang PG. Alpha-Gal oligosaccharides: chemistry and potential biomedical application. Curr Med Chem. 1999 Feb;6(2):155-64. Review. PubMed PMID: 10189229.
  4. Fang J, Chen X, Zhang W, Wang J, Andreana PR, Wang PG. A unique chemoenzymatic synthesis of alpha-Gal epitope derivatives containing free amino groups: efficient separation and further manipulation. The Journal of organic chemistry. 1999 May; 64(11):4089-4094. doi: 10.1021/jo990159y.
  5. Li J, Zacharek S, Chen X, Wang J, Zhang W, Janczuk A, Wang PG. Bacteria targeted by human natural antibodies using alpha-Gal conjugated receptor-specific glycopolymers. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999 Aug;7(8):1549-58. doi: 10.1016/s0968-0896(99)00099-1. PubMed PMID: 10482447.
  6. Wang J, Chen X, Zhang W, Zacharek S, Chen Y, Wang PG. Enhanced inhibition of human anti-Gal antibody binding to mammalian cells by synthetic alpha-Gal epitope polymers. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1999 September; 121(36):8174-8181. doi: 10.1021/ja990219h.
  7. Chen X, Kowal P, Hamad S, Fan H, Wang PG. Cloning, expression and characterization of a UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from Escherichia coli. Biotechnology letters. 1999 December; 21(12):1131-1135.
  8. Chen X, Andreana PR, Wang PG. Carbohydrates in transplantation. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1999 Dec;3(6):650-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 10600719.
  9. Xian M, Wang K, Chen X, Hou Y, McGill A, Zhou B, Zhang ZY, Cheng JP, Wang PG. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by low-molecular-weight S-nitrosothiols and S-nitrosylated human serum albumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Feb 16;268(2):310-4. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2117. PubMed PMID: 10679200.
  10. Chen X, Zhang W, Wang J, Fang J, Wang PG. Production of alpha-galactosyl epitopes via combined use of two recombinant whole cells harboring UDP-galactose 4-epimerase and alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase. Biotechnol Prog. 2000 Jul-Aug;16(4):595-9. doi: 10.1021/bp000052s. PubMed PMID: 10933834.
  11. Chen X, Liu Z, Wang J, Fang J, Fan H, Wang PG. Changing the donor cofactor of bovine alpha 1, 3-galactosyltransferase by fusion with UDP-galactose 4-epimerase. More efficient biocatalysis for synthesis of alpha-Gal epitopes. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 13;275(41):31594-600. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M004005200. PubMed PMID: 10913140.
  12. Chen X, Kowal P, Wang PG. Large-scale enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2000 Nov;3(6):756-63. PubMed PMID: 19649904.
  13. Fang J, Chen X, Zhang W, Janczuk A, Wang PG. Synthesis of alpha-Gal epitope derivatives with a galactosyltransferase-epimerase fusion enzyme. Carbohydr Res. 2000 Dec 1;329(4):873-8. doi: 10.1016/s0008-6215(00)00245-7. PubMed PMID: 11125830.
  14. Zhang J, Wu B, Liu Z, Kowal P, Chen X, Shao J, Wang PG. Large-scale synthesis of carbohydrates for pharmaceutical development. Current organic chemistry. 2001; 5:1169–1176.
  15. Kowal P, Chen X, Wang PG. Microbial glycosyltransferases. . In: Glycochemistry: Principles, Synthesis and Applications. Wang PG, Bertozzi CR, editors. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 2001. 625–640p.
  16. Chen Y, Zhang W, Chen X, Wang J, Wang PG. alpha-Gal-conjugated anti-rhinovirus agents: chemo-enzymatic syntheses and testing of anti-Gal binding. Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin transactions 1. 2001; 14:1716-1722.
  17. Chen X, Fang J, Zhang J, Liu Z, Shao J, Kowal P, Andreana P, Wang PG. Sugar nucleotide regeneration beads (superbeads): a versatile tool for the practical synthesis of oligosaccharides. J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Mar 7;123(9):2081-2. doi: 10.1021/ja005738v. PubMed PMID: 11456841.
  18. Chen X, Zhang J, Kowal P, Liu Z, Andreana PR, Lu Y, Wang PG. Transferring a biosynthetic cycle into a productive Escherichia coli strain: large-scale synthesis of galactosides. J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Sep 12;123(36):8866-7. doi: 10.1021/ja016187r. PubMed PMID: 11535100.
  19. Chen X, Liu Z, Zhang J, Zhang W, Kowal P, Wang PG. Reassembled biosynthetic pathway for large-scale carbohydrate synthesis: alpha-Gal epitope producing "superbug". Chembiochem. 2002 Jan 4;3(1):47-53. doi: 10.1002/1439-7633(20020104)3:1<47::AID-CBIC47>3.0.CO;2-N. PubMed PMID: 17590953.
  20. Liu Z, Zhang J, Chen X, Wang PG. Combined biosynthetic pathway for de novo production of UDP-galactose: catalysis with multiple enzymes immobilized on agarose beads. Chembiochem. 2002 Apr 2;3(4):348-55. doi: 10.1002/1439-7633(20020402)3:4<348::AID-CBIC348>3.0.CO;2-K. PubMed PMID: 11933236.
  21. Chen Y, Janczuk A, Chen X, Wang J, Ksebati M, Wang PG. Expeditious syntheses of two carbohydrate-linked cisplatin analogs. Carbohydr Res. 2002 Jun 5;337(11):1043-6. doi: 10.1016/s0008-6215(02)00096-4. PubMed PMID: 12039546.
  22. Zhang J, Chen X, Shao J, Liu Z, Kowal P, Lu Y, Wang PG. Synthesis of galactose-containing oligosaccharides through superbeads and superbug approaches: substrate recognition along different biosynthetic pathways. Methods Enzymol. 2003;362:106-24. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(03)01009-7. PubMed PMID: 12968360.
  23. Nahalka J, Liu Z, Chen X, Wang PG. Superbeads: immobilization in "sweet" chemistry. Chemistry. 2003 Jan 20;9(2):372-7. doi: 10.1002/chem.200390038. Review. PubMed PMID: 12532285.
  24. Chen X, Wu B, Wang PG. Glucuronides in anti-cancer therapy. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents. 2003 Mar;3(2):139-50. Review. PubMed PMID: 12678908.
  25. Zhang J, Kowal P, Chen X, Wang PG. Large-scale synthesis of globotriose derivatives through recombinant E. coli. Org Biomol Chem. 2003 Sep 7;1(17):3048-53. PubMed PMID: 14518127.
  26. Saribaş AS, Mobasseri A, Pristatsky P, Chen X, Barthelson R, Hakes D, Wang J. Production of N-sulfated polysaccharides using yeast-expressed N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1). Glycobiology. 2004 Dec;14(12):1217-28. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwh129. Epub 2004 Jul 14. PubMed PMID: 15253930.
  27. Yu H, Yu H, Karpel R, Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of CMP-sialic acid derivatives by a one-pot two-enzyme system: comparison of substrate flexibility of three microbial CMP-sialic acid synthetases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Dec 15;12(24):6427-35. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2004.09.030. PubMed PMID: 15556760.
  28. Yu H, Chokhawala H, Karpel R, Yu H, Wu B, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Jia Q, Chen X. A multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase: a powerful tool for the synthesis of sialoside libraries. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Dec 21;127(50):17618-9. doi: 10.1021/ja0561690. PubMed PMID: 16351087.
  29. Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Huang S, Chen X. One-pot three-enzyme chemoenzymatic approach to the synthesis of sialosides containing natural and non-natural functionalities. Nat Protoc. 2006;1(5):2485-92. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2006.401. PubMed PMID: 17406495; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2586341.
  30. Yu H, Ryan W, Yu H, Chen X. Characterization of a bifunctional cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase cloned from Streptococcus agalactiae. Biotechnol Lett. 2006 Jan;28(2):107-13. doi: 10.1007/s10529-005-4955-z. PubMed PMID: 16369694.
  31. Ni L, Sun M, Yu H, Chokhawala H, Chen X, Fisher AJ. Cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP)-induced structural changes in a multifunctional sialyltransferase from Pasteurella multocida. Biochemistry. 2006 Feb 21;45(7):2139-48. doi: 10.1021/bi0524013. PubMed PMID: 16475803.
  32. Yu H, Chen X. Aldolase-catalyzed synthesis of beta-D-galp-(1-->9)-D-KDN: a novel acceptor for sialyltransferases. Org Lett. 2006 May 25;8(11):2393-6. doi: 10.1021/ol060736m. PubMed PMID: 16706534.
  33. Yu H, Huang S, Chokhawala H, Sun M, Zheng H, Chen X. Highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of naturally occurring and non-natural alpha-2,6-linked sialosides: a P. damsela alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase with extremely flexible donor-substrate specificity. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2006 Jun 12;45(24):3938-44. doi: 10.1002/anie.200600572. PubMed PMID: 16721893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2728590.
  34. Chokhawala HA, Chen X. Enzymatic approaches to O-glycoside introduction: Glycosyltransferases. . In: Comprehensive Glycoscience, from Chemistry to Systems Biology. 1 ed. Kamerling JP, Boons G, Lee Y, Suzuki A, Taniguchi N, editors. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2007. 415–451p.
  35. Huang S, Yu H, Chen X. Disaccharides as sialic acid aldolase substrates: synthesis of disaccharides containing a sialic acid at the reducing end. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007;46(13):2249-53. doi: 10.1002/anie.200604799. PubMed PMID: 17309109.
  36. Chokhawala HA, Yu H, Chen X. High-throughput substrate specificity studies of sialidases by using chemoenzymatically synthesized sialoside libraries. Chembiochem. 2007 Jan 22;8(2):194-201. doi: 10.1002/cbic.200600410. PubMed PMID: 17195254; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2610223.
  37. Yu H, Chen X. Carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications. Org Biomol Chem. 2007 Mar 21;5(6):865-72. doi: 10.1039/b700034k. Epub 2007 Feb 6. PubMed PMID: 17340000; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2769254.
  38. Ni L, Chokhawala HA, Cao H, Henning R, Ng L, Huang S, Yu H, Chen X, Fisher AJ. Crystal structures of Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase complexes with acceptor and donor analogues reveal substrate binding sites and catalytic mechanism. Biochemistry. 2007 May 29;46(21):6288-98. doi: 10.1021/bi700346w. Epub 2007 May 8. PubMed PMID: 17487984.
  39. Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Varki A, Chen X. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of biotinylated human serum albumin-sialoglycoside conjugates containing O-acetylated sialic acids. Org Biomol Chem. 2007 Aug 7;5(15):2458-63. doi: 10.1039/b706507h. Epub 2007 Jun 27. PubMed PMID: 17637967; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2769491.
  40. Chokhawala HA, Cao H, Yu H, Chen X. Enzymatic synthesis of fluorinated mechanistic probes for sialidases and sialyltransferases. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Sep 5;129(35):10630-1. doi: 10.1021/ja072687u. Epub 2007 Aug 14. PubMed PMID: 17696347.
  41. Lewis AL, Cao H, Patel SK, Diaz S, Ryan W, Carlin AF, Thon V, Lewis WG, Varki A, Chen X, Nizet V. NeuA sialic acid O-acetylesterase activity modulates O-acetylation of capsular polysaccharide in group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 21;282(38):27562-71. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M700340200. Epub 2007 Jul 23. PubMed PMID: 17646166; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2588433.
  42. Li Y, Sun M, Huang S, Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Thon V, Chen X. The Hd0053 gene of Haemophilus ducreyi encodes an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Sep 21;361(2):555-60. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.07.063. Epub 2007 Jul 23. PubMed PMID: 17662691; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2084346.
  43. Muthana S, Yu H, Huang S, Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of size-defined polysaccharides by sialyltransferase-catalyzed block transfer of oligosaccharides. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Oct 3;129(39):11918-9. doi: 10.1021/ja075736b. Epub 2007 Sep 11. PubMed PMID: 17845050.
  44. Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Huang S, Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialosides and their applications. . In: ACS Symposium series 990. Chen X, Halcomb RL, Wang PG, editors. Washington DC, USA: American Chemical Society/Oxford University Press; 2008. Chapter 5; p.96-122. 96-122p.
  45. Sun M, Li Y, Chokhawala HA, Henning R, Chen X. N-Terminal 112 amino acid residues are not required for the sialyltransferase activity of Photobacterium damsela alpha2,6-sialyltransferase. Biotechnol Lett. 2008 Apr;30(4):671-6. doi: 10.1007/s10529-007-9588-y. Epub 2007 Nov 8. PubMed PMID: 17989925; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2598773.
  46. Linman MJ, Taylor JD, Yu H, Chen X, Cheng Q. Surface plasmon resonance study of protein-carbohydrate interactions using biotinylated sialosides. Anal Chem. 2008 Jun 1;80(11):4007-13. doi: 10.1021/ac702566e. Epub 2008 May 8. PubMed PMID: 18461973; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2586005.
  47. Li Y, Yu H, Cao H, Lau K, Muthana S, Tiwari VK, Son B, Chen X. Pasteurella multocida sialic acid aldolase: a promising biocatalyst. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Jul;79(6):963-70. doi: 10.1007/s00253-008-1506-2. Epub 2008 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 18521592; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2588431.
  48. Wang Z, Gilbert M, Eguchi H, Yu H, Cheng J, Muthana S, Zhou L, Wang PG, Chen X, Huang X. Chemoenzymatic Syntheses of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigen Globo-H and Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 4. Adv Synth Catal. 2008 Aug 4;350(11-12):1717-1728. doi: 10.1002/adsc.200800129. PubMed PMID: 20305750; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2842016.
  49. Cheng J, Yu H, Lau K, Huang S, Chokhawala HA, Li Y, Tiwari VK, Chen X. Multifunctionality of Campylobacter jejuni sialyltransferase CstII: characterization of GD3/GT3 oligosaccharide synthase, GD3 oligosaccharide sialidase, and trans-sialidase activities. Glycobiology. 2008 Sep;18(9):686-97. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwn047. Epub 2008 May 28. PubMed PMID: 18509108; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2588429.
  50. Chokhawala HA, Huang S, Lau K, Yu H, Cheng J, Thon V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Guerrero JA, Varki A, Chen X. Combinatorial chemoenzymatic synthesis and high-throughput screening of sialosides. ACS Chem Biol. 2008 Sep 19;3(9):567-76. doi: 10.1021/cb800127n. Epub 2008 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 18729452; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2588434.