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About - Tibia

The larger of two bones between the knee and ankle. Also called shinbone.

Results: 15

Intervention to improve fracture healing in adults

Broken bones (fractures) that do not heal or unite quickly or completely can result in significant pain and loss of function. This may affect the person's ability to work and an associated reduction in their quality of life. There is also a considerable economic burden to society associated with delayed union (healing) or nonunion of fractures. The intervention tested in this review is bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This is produced naturally by the body and it has been shown to play an important role in bone and cartilage formation. The review set out to find whether BMP applied at the fracture site can help to speed up and improve fracture healing.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

How does the ankle work?

The ankle is the joint that connects the bones in the lower leg to the foot bones. The upper ankle allows us to move our feet upwards, downwards, and a little to the side. The lower ankle allows the foot to tilt to the side a bit and also turn inwards and outwards.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 23, 2014

Bioabsorbable versus metal screw for graft fixation in the surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a knee ligament that functions to stabilise the knee. ACL injuries are more common in athletes, such as football, basketball and handball players. Many people with ACL injuries are treated with surgery to reconstruct this ligament. In ACL reconstruction, a replacement ligament (graft) is attached to tunnels drilled into the end of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone). Often screws are used to attach the graft to the bone. Traditionally, metal screws have been used. Although these are generally successful, metallic screws can be hard to remove if further surgery is required. They also interfere with looking at the knee using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With the aim of avoiding these disadvantages, and in response to patient requests, screws made ​​from materials that dissolve over time (bioabsorbable screws) were introduced. However, such screws have been reported to have increased risks of inflammation, infection, and failed surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Does electromagnetic field stimulation help heal fractures that are failing or have failed to heal?

Broken bones (fractures) that do not heal (thus do not achieve "union") in the normal time period can lead to a loss of function and pain. This problem leads to a reduction in a person's quality of life and may prevent their return to work with consequent costs to society. This review determines whether treatment with electromagnetic fields is effective in healing fractures that have not united based upon the best available evidence. The review only looks at fractures of the long bones. These are the upper arm bone, the two forearm bones, the thigh bone, and the two lower leg bones.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Surgical interventions for treating distal tibial fractures (breaks of the lower end of the shin bone) in adults

Breaks in the lower (distal) end of the shin bone (or tibia) are mostly caused by high‐energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents. We set out to compare surgical treatment (such as putting the broken parts back into position and fixing these either by inserting a metal nail into the central cavity of the bone (nailing) or with a metal plate and securing it to the bone using screws (plating)) with non‐surgical treatment (plaster cast immobilisation). We also set out to compare different methods of surgery such as nailing versus plating.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Intramedullary nailing treat tibial shaft fractures in adults

Fractures of the tibial shaft (breaks in the bone situated in the long middle section of the tibia or shin bone) are mostly caused by high‐energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents. One commonly used method of fixation is intramedullary nailing. This involves the insertion of a metal rod, usually from the upper side of the tibia, into the inner cavity (medulla) of the tibia. The rod is generally held in place by screws. An available and widely used surgical technique of intramedullary nailing is inserting intramedullary nails with reaming (the bone cavity is reamed, before inserting the nail into the bone cavity space) or without reaming. This review looked at the evidence from trials comparing various types of intramedullary nailing.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Interventions for treating defects of the joint surfaces of the ankle bone in adults

Osteochondral defects are limited areas of damage to the lining of a joint. These defects involve the joint surface (chondral) and also the bone underneath the surface (osteo). The ankle is composed of three bones named the tibia (shin bone), fibula (the other lower leg bone) and talus (ankle bone). This review just looks osteochondral defects in the talus. Such defects occur mainly after trauma. They are rare but can result in pain and significant disability.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Fixation options of total knee replacement for osteoarthritis and other non‐traumatic diseases

‐ The risk of future aseptic loosening with uncemented fixation is approximately half that of cemented fixation in people with knee osteoarthritis and other non‐traumatic diseases.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Platelet rich therapies for long bone healing in adult

Broken bones (fractures) are a major cause of disability in adults. The time taken for a bone to heal (achieve "union") is an important factor in determining recovery after an injury. A minority of fractures fail to heal at all or in an appropriate period of time. This review set out to find out whether treatment with platelet rich therapy (PRT) accelerates bone healing and reduces complications. Typically, platelet treatment involves the donation of a single venous blood sample from which the active, platelet‐rich, fraction is extracted usually by a process of centrifugation. Additional chemicals may be added to the active fraction to alter its biological and material handling properties.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antibiotics for treating chronic bone infection in adults

Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone and bone marrow caused by pus‐forming bacteria, mycobacteria or fungi. All bone infection that is long‐standing is called chronic osteomyelitis. People with this condition are treated with systemic antibiotics, which can be given by mouth or parenterally (i.e. by injection into the muscle or vein). This review is an update of our previous 2009 publication.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Surgical fixation methods for treating tibial plateau fractures (breaks in the top end of the shin bone) in adults

Fractures of the tibial plateau are injuries affecting the top end of the tibia (shin bone), which forms the lower bone surface in the knee joint. These fractures are often associated with a large amount of damage to the skin and muscle and may cause voids or defects in the bone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Retention versus sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee replacement for the treatment of osteoarthritis

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration have conducted a review of two types of knee replacement surgery for people with knee osteoarthritis. In one type, the posterior cruciate ligament is kept and in the other, it is removed. After searching for all relevant studies, they found 17 studies with up to 1810 patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Double‐bundle versus single‐bundle reconstruction for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults

Anterior cruciate ligament injury is a common soft‐tissue knee injury. Patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency, especially young physically active males, usually do not return to pre‐injury level of activities due to knee instability. Surgical treatment of ACL rupture involves reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by use of a graft (a piece of tendon usually obtained from the patient) that is passed through tunnels drilled into the tibia and femur at the insertion points of the ligament and then fixed. Repair may use a single‐bundle or double‐bundle technique. The ACL mainly consists of two distinct portions or 'bundles'. In single‐bundle reconstruction, one of these bundles is restored whereas in double‐bundle reconstruction, both are restored. Double‐bundle reconstruction may give greater knee stability but is more technically demanding and invasive than single‐bundle reconstruction. This review aimed to find out if double‐bundle reconstruction gives a better result than single‐bundle reconstruction.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Ultrasound and shockwave treatment for recently broken bones in adults

Broken bones (fractures) are a major cause of disability in adults. The time taken for a bone to heal (achieve "union") is an important factor in determining recovery after an injury. A minority of fractures fail to heal at all or their healing takes considerably longer than expected. This review set out to find out whether treatment with ultrasound, in a variety of forms, accelerates fracture healing and reduces complications associated with new (acute) fractures. A related intervention, shockwave therapy, was also examined. Typically, ultrasound treatment involves placing a special device in contact with the skin overlying the fracture site for around 20 minutes on a daily basis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Surgical versus non‐surgical treatment after kneecap dislocation

The patella or kneecap is a lens‐shaped bone situated at the front of the knee. It is incorporated into the tendon of the quadriceps muscles of the thigh and moves within a groove at the lower end of the thigh bone (femur). Patellar dislocation occurs when the patella completely moves out of this groove. It typically occurs in young and physically active people with minimal trauma when they twist the bent knee with the foot fixed to the ground, for example, during sporting activities. The most common recurrent symptom reported by people is patella or knee cap instability. It may be associated with abnormal shape of the knee joint bones, weakness of the muscles around the hip or knees or tightness of soft tissues on the outside of the knee.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

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