Home > Search Results

Results: 9


Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy reduce the risk of breast cancer recurring and the risk of dying from breast cancer. Generally, these therapies are given after surgery but there is uncertainty about whether they should be given at the same time (concurrently) or one after the other (sequentially). If they are used sequentially, the radiotherapy or the chemotherapy could be used first and concerns have been expressed that the effectiveness of the therapy that is delayed might be reduced. However, it has also been suggested that using chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the same time may be more toxic than keeping them separate. This review examined the current evidence on the best way to administer chemotherapy and radiotherapy following breast‐conserving surgery. We were able to include three randomised trials. Two of these, with 853 women, assessed radiotherapy and chemotherapy given at the same time versus chemotherapy given first followed by radiotherapy. The third trial randomised 244 women to radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy versus chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The evidence produced by these three well‐conducted trials suggests that recurrence of a woman's cancer and her chances of dying from breast cancer are similar regardless of the order of the treatments, provided that both radiotherapy and chemotherapy are commenced within seven months of the surgery. The trials provided limited information regarding adverse events, side effects or quality of life associated with the different sequences of treatment. The limited evidence available does suggest that the frequency and severity of side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are similar regardless of which sequence is used. However, it should be noted that the women in these trials were treated, on average, in the early 2000s. As a result, the trials do not assess the modern types of radiotherapy, and new types of chemotherapy (such as taxanes) or other drugs (such as Herceptin). We will add relevant trials that include these more recent treatments to future updates of this review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Sclerotherapy has been used for centuries to treat spider veins. The technique involves the injection of a chemical into the veins. This is sometimes followed by compression with bandages or stockings.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Radiotherapy is often used to treat cancer in the pelvic area. Several organs in the pelvis, such as the anus, rectum, bladder, prostate, gynaecological organs (womb, ovaries, cervix, and vagina), small bowel, and pelvic bones may be exposed to the effects of radiotherapy, which can lead to pelvic radiation disease. Symptoms from pelvic radiation disease may occur around the time of treatment (early effects) or over a period of time, often many years after treatment (late effects) due to long‐term changes secondary to scarring (fibrosis), narrowing (stenosis), and bleeding due to new blood vessel formation (telangiectasia). Damage to the rectum (radiation proctopathy) is the most often investigated late radiation effect to the pelvis, which affects a small but but still important group of people who undergo pelvic radiotherapy. The common symptoms are rectal urgency, rectal incontinence, pain, mucus discharge, and rectal bleeding.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Vitiligo is a chronic skin disorder characterised by patchy loss of skin colour. Some people experience itching before the appearance of a new patch. It affects people of any age or ethnicity, more than half of whom develop it before the age of 20 years. There are two main types: generalised vitiligo, the common symmetrical form, and segmental, affecting only one side of the body. Recent genetic research suggests that generalised vitiligo is, at least in part, an autoimmune condition which destroys melanocytes (pigment cells). Although our understanding of vitiligo has increased, its causes are still poorly understood. Several treatments are available. Some can restore pigment but none can cure it or prevent its spread or recurrence. Vitiligo patches can have a major psychosocial impact, especially for people with dark or tanned skin or when the face or hands are affected. People with vitiligo can be stigmatised, often experiencing low self‐esteem and a lack of self‐confidence. Children with vitiligo may be teased and bullied at school. Despite this, we found only one study assessing psychological therapy for vitiligo.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Childhood ALL is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many immature lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Here’s what you need to know about the risk factors, signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ALL in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 26, 2017

Rosacea is a common skin condition causing flushing, redness, red pimples and pustules on the face, and should not be confused with acne. Dilated blood vessels may appear near the surface of the skin (telangiectasia). It can also cause inflammation of the eyes or eyelids, or both (ocular rosacea). Some people can develop a thickening of the skin, especially of the nose (rhinophyma). Although the cause of rosacea remains unclear, a wide variety of treatments are available for this persistent (chronic) and recurring and often distressing disease. These include medications applied directly to the skin (topical), oral medications and light‐based therapies. We wanted to discover how people assessed their treatments: if the treatments changed their quality of life, if they saw changes in their condition and if there were side effects. From the doctors, we wanted to discover whether treatments changed the severity of rosacea, as well as how long it took before symptoms reduced and reappeared.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Women with early breast cancer who choose to keep their breast need to have radiotherapy (RT) as well as surgery to remove the cancer to make sure it does not regrow in the breast. RT is treatment with high energy x‐rays. Having RT for breast cancer usually means 25 to 30 visits to the RT department, five times per week.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of treatment on speech difficulties in people with Friedreich ataxia and other hereditary ataxias.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

A lot of people are wary of steroids. If used properly, though, they rarely lead to side effects. And they are only used for acute flare-ups, not for long-term treatment. Preventive intermittent treatment with topical corticosteroids can help with frequent flare-ups.In mild eczema, a special skin care routine may be enough to keep the condition at bay. If the skin is inflamed and itchy, a topical corticosteroid ointment or cream is used on the rash too. Topical means “applied to the skin.” These products can effectively reduce the itching and inflammation. They are used until the symptoms go away. If for some reason steroids shouldn’t be used, the medications pimecrolimus or tacrolimus can be considered. These belong to a group of medications called calcineurin inhibitors. They are used if, for instance, sensitive areas such as the face or genitals are affected.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 23, 2017

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (126)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (1)...

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...