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There is much debate on the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer. The aim of this review was to collect the available evidence and then to calculate how well EUS stages stomach cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 6, 2015

The thyroid is a vitally important hormonal gland, which mainly works for the body’s metabolism. It is located in the front part of the neck below the voice box and is butterfly-shaped. The functions of the thyroid gland include the production of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine, also called thyroxine (T4).

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 30, 2016

The management of early prostate cancer is one of the most controversial areas in the field of cancer medicine with surgery, radiotherapy, primary hormonal therapy (achieved either by medication or by the surgical removal of the testes ‐ orchidectomy) and watchful waiting, all being acceptable forms of initial treatment. Treatment decision making is often based on patient and provider preferences taking into account the risks and benefits of therapies and disease progression. Since prostate cancer is driven, in part by male sex hormones, the use of hormonal treatment to reduce the level of circulating male hormones is a potentially very useful method of treating all stages of this disease. Recently, research on the use of such hormonal therapy in combination with both surgery and radiotherapy has increased. This systematic review combines the results of all the important trials looking at the role of hormones in combination with surgery and radiotherapy for localised and locally advanced prostate cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 18, 2006

There is an international system for the classification of cancerous tumors. This helps to describe cancers and compare the results of medical tests and examinations. Doctors and researchers all use what is known as TNM classification.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 27, 2016

This summary will tell you about What localized prostate cancer is Common treatment options for localized prostate cancer (watchful waiting, active surveillance, surgery to remove the prostate gland, radiation therapy, and hormone treatment) What researchers found about how the treatments compare Possible side effects of the treatments Things to talk about with your doctor

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 21, 2016

A number of different kinds of tests can be used to detect breast cancer or metastatic tumors elsewhere in the body. They are often combined to get a more accurate diagnosis. The treatment approach can then be chosen based on the outcomes of the tests. Your doctor is the first person to go to if you suspect you might have breast cancer, or if you think it has become worse or come back again. This might be your family doctor, your gynecologist or a specialist for outpatient cancer treatment. Different types of tests might be needed, depending on your symptoms. Your doctor might examine you or refer you to a hospital or specialized breast cancer center. A breast cancer center is a specialized hospital department or several specialized departments that work together. In Germany, special “certified” breast cancer centers examine and treat people who have cancer according to special criteria to ensure high quality care. Specialists working in breast cancer centers include gynecologists, psycho-oncologists, nurses and other medical professionals. Before any examination the doctor will always ask you about your symptoms, your general state of health and medical history. It is important that the doctor takes the time to explain the following things: Why the examination needs to be doneHow it is done and what can be found out by doing itWhether it is associated with any risks or side effects (e.g. exposure to radiation or a wound after minor surgery)What other kinds of examinations are possibleWhat can be done if you decide not to have the examinationsWhen you will get the results and discuss them You always have the right to refuse any of the tests. The examinations and staging approach listed here are those described in the latest, German-language, breast cancer clinical practice guideline issued by the German Cancer Society and the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Clinical practice guidelines act as decision aids for doctors and patients. They aim to help guarantee that treatment is the best it can be and quality-assured. Evidence-based guidelines will ideally be based on the results of good-quality research.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 23, 2016

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