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The use of needles that break the skin and cause pain is a common practice around the world with babies aged between one month and 12 months (Appendix 4). In this review we were interested in whether giving babies sugar‐based solutions to taste when the needle breaks the skin will help reduce their pain.  We found 14 separate studies that had asked this question. However, the differences between the studies were often too great to let us combine their findings.  Overall, the studies show that different types of sugar‐based solutions were effective but we were not able to confidently assert that there is strong evidence for this treatment in reducing pain.  We did find some evidence that babies may not cry for as long if given sugar‐based solutions. This review is broadly in agreement with two other reviews, one asking this question in younger children, and one in older children. There is a need for better studies in this field.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 12, 2012

We reviewed the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of xylitol to prevent acute middle ear infection (acute otitis media; AOM) in children up to 12 years old.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 3, 2016

This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011: Sweet tasting solutions for reduction of needle‐related procedural pain in children aged one to 16 years. We re‐ran the search in October 2014.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 5, 2015

If someone has diabetes that isn’t treated properly, they have too much sugar in their blood (hyperglycemia). Too little sugar in the bloodstream (hypoglycemia) is usually a side effect of treatment with blood-sugar-lowering medication. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with far-reaching health effects. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is released into the bloodstream, or the insulin can’t be used properly. In type 1 diabetes, the body only produces very little insulin, or none at all. We need insulin to live. Without it, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood because it can’t be taken out and used by the body. Very high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia, leads to a number of symptoms. If blood sugar levels are too low, it is called hypoglycemia.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 11, 2018

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