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This is an update of the Cochrane review "Pharmacologic treatment for memory disorder in multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 10).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Monoclonal antibodies such as daclizumab could be a possible alternative immunotherapy to interferon beta treatment in people with multiple sclerosis. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010, and previously updated in 2012. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of daclizumab, alone or combined to other treatments for the improvement in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

This is an update of the Cochrane review "Mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis" (published on Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

It is currently thought that inflammation is crucial in MS, leading to a disruption in the ability of nerves to conduct impulses. NTZ is the first of a new generation of anti‐inflammatory treatments for MS, which is given intravenously every 4 weeks. It is usually prescribed once other drugs have failed or when the disease is rapidly worsening.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It can result in a wide range of symptoms including sensory impairment, fatigue, walking or balance problems, visual impairment, vertigo and cognitive disabilities. At present, the most commonly used MS treatments are immunomodulating agents, such as beta interferon, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate. Although these agents have all been shown to reduce relapse frequency, they have little effect on the disability that characterises the progressive forms of the disease. Animal studies show the sodium (Na+) accumulation leads to intracellular calcium (Ca2+) release, and the increased calcium levels can activate the release of harmful elements. These elements contribute to axonal injury exacerbating the neurological disability. If partial blockade of voltage‐gated sodium channels could result in neuroprotection in patients with MS, this would be of benefit in preventing the progression of disability in these patients. Neuroprotection is emerging as a potentially important strategy for preventing disability progression in MS.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

This review is un update of the Cochrane Review, "Corticosteroids or ACTH for acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis," first published in The Cochrane Library 2000, Issue 4.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease affecting over 1.3 million people globally. MS is characterized by diffuse damage to the central nervous system, leading to a wide range of different physical and cognitive (mental processes) symptoms. One of the most prominent and disabling symptoms of MS is fatigue. Currently, there is no effective medicine to reduce fatigue in people with MS. Treatment with exercise may be a way to reduce fatigue either directly by changing how the body works, for example hormonal function, or indirectly through improved physical activity and general health.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Different therapeutic strategies are available for the treatment of people with relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), including immunomodulators, immunosuppressants, and biologics. Although there is consensus that these therapies may reduce the frequency of relapses, their relative benefit (effectiveness compared to each other) in delaying new relapses or disability worsening remains unclear due to the limited number of direct comparison studies (i.e. studies comparing two or more active agents with each other).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Dimethyl fumarate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency for adults with relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). It does not require that any other medication be tried before dimethyl fumarate is prescribed. Although data from non Cochrane reviews are available, it is important to systematically evaluate its efficacy and safety as monotherapy versus placebo.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Do people with MS who received memory rehabilitation show: 1. better outcomes in their memory functions compared to those given no treatment or receiving a placebo control; and 2. better functional abilities, in terms of activities of daily living, mood, and quality of life, than those who received no treatment or a placebo.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the nervous system that affects young and middle‐aged adults. Repeated damage to the myelin sheaths (the membranes that cover and protect nerves) and other parts of the nerves can lead to serious disability. MS may be related to problems in the immune system. Alemtuzumab is a biologic drug (a type of antibody), which has already been used for other diseases.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 15, 2016

Considering the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), most of the treatments have been based on the immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties of drugs such as interferons, glatiramer, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Several immunotherapies have been used to treat MS, but their relative effectiveness is unclear due to the limited number of direct comparison studies. The authors of this review tried to assess the efficacy and the extent of adverse events of immunotherapies commonly used in people with MS. Eleven agents were studied, interferon ß‐1b (IFNß‐1b) (Betaseron), IFNß‐1a (Rebif and Avonex), glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, immunoglobulins, and long‐term corticosteroids.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Teriflunomide was first used in rheumatoid arthritis, and is known to possess both anti‐proliferative (inhibiting cell growth) and anti‐inflammatory (counteracting a local response to cellular injury) actions. In 2012, its use was approved for these characteristics by the US Food and Drug Administration for people with relapsing (with recurrent exacerbations of neurological symptoms) forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 2013 also by the European Medicines Agency.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Sufficient data were available from 22 studies on the following drugs: cladribine (Movectro), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), interferon beta‐1b (Betaferon), interferon beta‐1a (Rebif; Avonex), and teriflunomide (Aubagio).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 25, 2017

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the nervous system and the most frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Myelin, the material that wraps around and protects the nerves becomes damaged and this results in scarring and the formation of scar‐like plaques.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

How does fingolimod compare in multiple sclerosis?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: November 30, 2011

Rehabilitation is considered to be a key symptomatic and supportive treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise training using vibratory platform (whole body vibration) has been recently introduced as a complementary treatment to rehabilitation.This review identified ten trials performing whole body vibration (WBV) in neurodegenerative diseases: six in Parkinson's disease and four in multiple sclerosis. Diversity in treatments and outcomes measures makes difficult to quantitatively compare the effect of WBV intervention across studies and to assess its efficacy. There is insufficient evidence to determine the potential benefits of WBV training in functional performance according to activities of daily life, body balance, signs and symptoms of disease, muscle performance, and quality of life in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Adverse events were poorly reported in the included studies, but this kind of training seems to be a safe intervention. These conclusions are based on a small number of studies with a limited methodological quality.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

In an advanced disease such as cancer, fatigue can be described as tiredness, weakness or lack of energy. Fatigue can affect daily activity and quality of life, and it is frequently reported by palliative care patients. The underlying causes of fatigue are not very well understood and fatigue is difficult to treat.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

There are various rarer dementias including Huntington's disease (HD), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia in multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). A group of chemicals known as cholinesterase inhibitors are considered to be the first‐line medicines for Alzheimer's disease and some other dementias. Cholinesterase inhibitors may also lead to clinical improvement for rarer dementias associated with neurological conditions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

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