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Absorbed through the skin: Treats attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

By mouth: Treats ADHD. Also treats narcolepsy.

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We reviewed the evidence of the effects of methylphenidate on the behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Fatigue associated with cancer is a significant problem. It can occur because of side effects of treatment or because of the disease itself. It can have a significant impact on a person's ability to function. The causes of fatigue are not fully understood and so it is very difficult to treat appropriately. This review has examined drug treatment for fatigue as it represents one of the ways this problem can be tackled. The review authors looked at trials in all types of cancer and at all stages of treatment. Fifty studies met the inclusion criteria but only 31 (7104 participants) were deemed suitable for detailed analysis as they explored fatigue in sufficient detail. They found mixed results with some drugs showing an effect on fatigue ‐ most notably drugs that stimulate red blood cell production and also drugs that improve levels of concentration. Methylphenidate, a stimulant drug that improves concentration, is effective for the management of cancer‐related fatigue but the small samples used in the available studies mean more research is needed to confirm its role. Erythropoietin and darbopoetin, drugs that improve anaemia, are effective in the management of cancer‐related fatigue. However safety concerns and side effects from these drugs mean that they can no longer be recommended to treat cancer fatigue.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Amphetamine dependence constitutes a public health problem with many consequences and complications. Amphetamine abuse refers to a maladaptive and hazardous pattern of use considered to be less severe than dependence. To date, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for amphetamine abuse or dependence, and psychotherapy remains the best treatment option.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

This review found no firm evidence that drug management of agitation and aggression in adults with acquired brain injury is effective. There was weak evidence, based on a few small randomized controlled trials, that beta‐blockers can improve aggression after acquired brain injury, but very large doses were used which would have been likely to produce significant adverse effects. For other classes of medication, reasonable size randomized controlled trials have not been published.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

ADHD affects a large number of children and adolescents, giving rise to problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. A variety of medications, including tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), may be used to treat the core symptoms of ADHD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

In an advanced disease such as cancer, fatigue can be described as tiredness, weakness or lack of energy. Fatigue can affect daily activity and quality of life, and it is frequently reported by palliative care patients. The underlying causes of fatigue are not very well understood and fatigue is difficult to treat.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Some people with intellectual disability (ID; also known as mental retardation) may also have attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most of the research into treatment of ADHD with amfetamine has been performed in people who do not have ID. The objective of this review was to assess whether amfetamine is effective in treating ADHD in people who also have an intellectual disability. We found only one study, which examined this question in a small group of participants. This did not find an effect, but we do not think this is enough evidence to draw conclusions about whether or not amfetamine is effective. More research in this area is urgently needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Problems with mental activities (cognitive deficits) are common in patients who have received radiation to the brain for a primary or secondary (metastatic) brain tumour, or to help prevent a tumour spreading to the brain from elsewhere in the body. This toxic side effect of brain radiation may be acute (during treatment) or early after treatment (one to six months) and may be reversible. However, late toxicities may occur many months or years later and are generally irreversible and are slowly progressive. Late cognitive deficits, such as memory loss, problems planning tasks or behavioural changes, can have a serious impact on quality of life and the ability to carrying out activities normally. Interventions to help prevent or treat these late radiation toxicities may improve a patient's well‐being.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The most appropriate treatment for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will largely depend on their individual circumstances and the type of problems being caused by the condition.Most adults who have ADHD develop their own strategies for dealing with the disorder. Some may try using relaxation techniques or turn to self-help groups for support, while others may find doing sports helpful.Some adults with ADHD need more help to successfully cope with their disorder. In their case, medication and/or psychotherapy may be good treatment options. Medication can effectively reduce the main ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Behavioral therapy can help you learn different ways to better cope with behavioral problems and the effects they have in everyday life.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 9, 2015

A number of different treatment options are available for ADHD. They include parent education, support at school, behavioral therapy and medication. The choice of treatment will mainly depend on the type of ADHD and how severe it is.Children and teenagers who have ADHD are much more inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive than other children of their age. Their behavior can cause conflicts at home and at school. However, it is not always easy to differentiate between minor behavioral problems and ADHD.Some children who have ADHD are mainly inattentive. Others may be more hyperactive or impulsive. The treatment options will largely depend on whether the child tends to be more inattentive or more hyperactive, how old they are, and whether their behavior is more of an issue at home or at school. And, last but not least, how much of a problem it is for everyone involved.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 9, 2015

This summary discusses the different types of treatment for ADHD. It explains what research says about how each treatment improves symptoms and the risks involved with each treatment. It can help you talk with the doctor about ADHD and your child.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 26, 2012

ADHD is a mental disorder in which children are especially inattentive, impulsive or hyperactive. Severe ADHD can cause major problems in the life and everyday routine of both the child and their family. But a number of different treatment options are available. In adulthood the symptoms are generally much less severe or may have disappeared completely.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 9, 2015

This summary will answer these questions: What are disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs)? How are DBDs treated? » Psychosocial treatment (treatment with a trained therapist) » Medicines What have researchers found about treatments for DBDs? What are possible side effects of medicines for DBDs? What should I talk about with my child's or teen's health care professional?

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 31, 2016

As many as half of all children with tic disorders also have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Symptoms of ADHD are often more disabling for children than their tics. Historically, the reported ability of stimulant medications to worsen tics has limited their use in children who have both a chronic tic disorder and ADHD. To evaluate evidence for this reported phenomenon we searched for clinical trials of medications for ADHD used specifically in children with tic disorders. The trials indicate that a number of stimulant and non‐stimulant medications are safe and effective treatments for ADHD symptoms and do not worsen tics. High dose stimulants may transiently worsen tics in some children, and worsening tics may limit dose increases of stimulants in some children, but in the majority of children both tics and ADHD symptoms improve with use of stimulant medications.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

At least one‐third of people with Parkinson's disease complain about fatigue. It is unclear what treatment is best to reduce fatigue in people with Parkinson's disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Depression is common and under‐treated. The current first‐line drug treatment for moderate or severe depression is antidepressants, but there are problems with their use. This review evaluated the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of psychostimulants (PS) in the treatment of depression. Twenty‐four RCTs were identified, of which 14 had data for meta‐analysis. Five drugs were evaluated, including dexamphetamine, methylphenidate, methylamphetamine, pemoline and modafinil. Modafinil was evaluated separately as its pharmacology differs from other PS. Three small trials of PS involving a total of 62 participants indicated that oral treatment with PS in the short term (up to four weeks) significantly reduced depressive symptoms when compared with placebo, however, the overall quality of the trials was poor, limiting confidence in the findings. Two trials involving 411 participants compared modafinil against placebo when combined with antidepressant treatment at 6‐8 weeks, and showed a non‐significant difference in reducing depression symptoms. One small trial of 50 participants compared oral modafinil against placebo after 12 weeks of treatment, and also showed a non‐significant difference in reducing depression symptoms. No trials examined the longer‐term effect of PS. Further well conducted trials with long term follow‐up are required to find out which PS may be more effective in the treatment of depression, and whether PS are more effective in certain subgroups of depressed patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Myotonic dystrophy is an inherited muscular dystrophy causing muscle weakness and wasting. Many people with myotonic dystrophy complain about excessive daytime sleepiness. This symptom is related to disordered central respiratory control. Psychostimulants are drugs that increase alertness and include caffeine, amphetamine, selegiline, methylphenidate and modafinil. In this updated review there were few randomized controlled trials which evaluated the efficacy and safety of psychostimulants in myotonic dystrophy. One randomized controlled trial of selegiline involving 11 participants did not demonstrate any benefit. Four studies of another drug modafinil suggested inconsistent and slight benefits. Only two of these studies used the gold standard test, a sleepiness scale, to evaluate hypersomnia and found non significant improvement. In these four studies modafinil seemed well tolerated. Further randomized trials are needed to determine the utility of psychostimulants for myotonic dystrophy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

We investigated whether psychostimulant substitution was safe and effective for treating patients with cocaine dependence.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

This review looks at whether family therapy can help children with attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without medication. There are several medications and types of therapy used to treat ADHD. However, many families would rather that their children not take medication. Two studies met the criteria for quality of research method. One found no difference in children's symptoms of ADHD after either family therapy or normal treatment in the community. The second study found that family therapy was more effective than a medication placebo. Further research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major problem in children and adolescents and can result in long‐term social, academic and mental health problems. Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, are the most frequently used treatments for ADHD but are not always effective and can be associated with side effects. There is evidence that ADHD could be related to deficiencies of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and, in particular, omega‐3 PUFA; therefore, PUFA supplementation may improve ADHD symptoms and associated problems. The aim of this review was to evaluate whether PUFA supplements are an effective treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD. Although there were some limited data that did indicate there may be some improvement, overall there was little evidence that PUFA supplementation is beneficial. Further high‐quality research needs to be done.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

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