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Synthetic human growth hormone for treating X‐linked hypophosphatemia (or Vitamin D resistant rickets) in children

Standard treatment of X‐linked hypophosphatemia can heal rickets but does not always raise the level of phosphates in the blood or return growth levels to normal. It is unclear whether combining human growth hormone therapy with standard treatment improves the phosphate levels, growth rates and bone mineral density. Only one small trial with five children was included in this review. The human growth hormone treatment improved the z score for height and briefly increased the level of phosphates in the blood. However, we found no conclusive evidence that favours the use of human growth hormone treatment for this condition. There have not been enough trials of human growth hormone treatment for this condition and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Intensity of continuous renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is very common among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU), it is associated with a high death rated and characterised by the rapid loss of the kidney function. Patients with AKI show increased levels of serum uraemic toxins (creatinine and urea), serum potassium and metabolic acids, accumulation of water and in the most cases a reduction in urine output. In this population these chemicals and fluid overload are related to increased rates of death. Theoretically, effective removal of toxins and excess water from the bloodstream might improve patient outcomes (such as mortality rate and recovery of kidney function).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Treatment‐related early and late side effects on the kidney in survivors of childhood cancer

Over the past few decades, great improvements in diagnostics and treatment have resulted in a major increase in survival rates of childhood cancer. However, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at great risk of developing adverse effects as a result of their cancer treatment. One of the potential adverse effects of childhood cancer treatment is kidney damage. Renal adverse effects are common during and just after treatment, but very little evidence is available on the frequency of renal function impairment in long‐term CCS and on what the risk factors are. Survivors with impaired renal function due to childhood cancer treatment are usually symptom free. The kidneys are remarkably well able to compensate for problems in their functioning. However, when renal late adverse events become symptomatic, survivors can experience a range of symptoms, depending on the kidney functions that are damaged. This systematic review aimed to assess the magnitude of asymptomatic and symptomatic early and late renal adverse events in long‐term CCS and to identify which risk factors contribute to impaired renal function.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

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