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Many women have a tear to the skin between the vagina and anus (the perineum) following childbirth. These tears can sometimes involve the muscles that control the function of the anus, and women can suffer for the rest of their lives with difficulty controlling gas, liquid and solid stool. Evidence shows that by properly repairing these tears, complications can be reduced. The muscles can often be difficult to see with the naked eye due to a number of factors including reduced lighting, swelling of the tissues and poor pain relief.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 29, 2015

Stomach ache, bloating, "gas" and diarrhea are all typical digestive symptoms that some people have after eating or drinking dairy products. People who have difficulty digesting dairy products may only tolerate certain amounts of lactose (a sugar found in milk and other dairy products). This is called lactose intolerance.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 17, 2015

Antibiotic‐associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs when antibiotics disturb the natural balance of "good" and "bad" bacteria in the intestinal tract causing harmful bacteria to multiply beyond their normal numbers. The symptoms of AAD include frequent watery bowel movements and crampy abdominal pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 22, 2015

The typical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Although IBS is not dangerous, the symptoms can be very painful and bothersome. Here you can find information on the various treatment options and what you can expect from them.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 20, 2016

There are fewer treatment options for food allergies than for other kinds of allergies. They mainly involve avoiding contact with the food in question and learning how to manage acute allergic reactions. Food allergies and food intolerances are often mixed up. The following table describes how they differ from each other.  Food allergyFood intolerance The immune system mistakenly considers a protein to pose a threat to the body although it is harmless, and makes antibodies to fight the protein.Common symptoms include itching, swelling in the mouth and throat, and skin rashes. More severe symptoms can occur too, such as a sudden drop in blood pressure and unconsciousness.The symptoms usually start soon after coming into contact with the food.Even small amounts can sometimes cause severe allergic reactions. The body has difficulties digesting or breaking down certain substances.Common symptoms include bloating, flatulence ("gas" or "wind"), stomach cramps, vomiting and diarrhea.These symptoms typically start a few hours after eating the food.Small amounts of the food are usually tolerated.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 13, 2017

There are a lot of treatments for the relief of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – but there is a lack of good-quality research on them. Because the causes of IBS are not clear, it is difficult to find suitable treatments. But research has suggested that at least some medications and treatments may help. The main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Most people only have mild symptoms that they can cope with fairly well without having treatment. Over time they learn to understand their body's signals. But some people have such severe symptoms that their everyday lives are greatly affected and it becomes very distressing. If that is the case, various treatment options can be considered.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 20, 2016

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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