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There is no current evidence from randomised trials to show that adding feed thickeners to milk for newborn infants is effective in treating gastro‐oesophageal reflux. Many newborn babies (in the first four weeks of life) suffer from gastro‐oesophageal reflux, especially if they are born premature. Thickening the milk feed is a simple manoeuvre and commonly used as first line treatment for gastro‐oesophageal reflux. Thickening the feeds can be used with or without other treatments such as positioning babies on their stomach or side, and using medications that suppress acid in the stomach or cause food to move more rapidly through the stomach. No randomised controlled studies of sufficient quality were found in this review. Therefore, there is no current evidence to support or refute the use of feed thickeners in treating newborn babies with gastro‐oesophageal reflux.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used as a flavour enhancer and has been implicated in "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome", causing tightness, burning or numbness in the face, neck and upper chest (although there is no evidence to prove this syndrome). It has also been proposed that asthmatics may react badly to MSG. In two randomised controlled trials (RCTs), involving 24 adult asthmatics, there was no evidence that MSG worsened asthma when compared to control ingestion. Further RCTs are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

In food allergies, even small amounts of the food can be enough to trigger an allergic reaction (e.g. itching and swelling in the mouth and throat, or a skin rash). It’s important to get the right diagnosis in order to get the right treatment – and avoid removing certain foods from your diet for no reason.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 13, 2017

Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There is no evidence that tartrazine makes asthma worse or avoiding it makes asthma patients any better.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Migraines are quite different than the usual kind of headaches that most people have every now and then. They typically start suddenly, with moderate to severe pain on only one side of your head. Even small movements often make the pain worse. What can help relieve migraines? How can they be prevented?

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 19, 2015

People who are sensitive to lactose need to read the labels on food packaging very carefully.Here you can find out what to watch for when you shop and how much lactose different foods have in them.All packaged foods have a label on them with information such as:Best before dateAll ingredientsIngredients that commonly trigger allergies or food intolerancesNutritional content and calories

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 17, 2015

Studies have found weak evidence that probiotic dietary supplements can prevent children with a higher genetic risk from developing eczema. There has hardly been any research on prebiotic dietary supplements.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 23, 2017

Medications can have a number of side effects, including allergic reactions. People who have a drug allergy are often no longer sure which medications they can take, and which they can't. And it isn’t always easy to find alternatives to the medications you’re allergic to.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 13, 2017

The symptoms of an acute migraine attack can be relieved with medication. Some children and teenagers keep getting migraines, though. If the migraine attacks are frequent, many children and their parents try to find ways to prevent them.About 10 out of 100 teenagers have migraines in puberty. Sometimes the migraines stop after puberty, but some people still have them as adults. Painkillers and migraine medication are effective treatments for migraine attacks. A number of these medicines are also suitable for children and teenagers.Frequent migraine attacks can be very taxing. Taking preventive medication can help – but is most effective in combination with other preventive strategies.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 18, 2015

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