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The drug galantamine has been reported to have benefits for people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who do not have Down syndrome. However, people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the general population as well as being physically different in terms of size, metabolism and heart rate, and may therefore have different requirements. This review identified no randomised controlled trials of galantamine in people with Down syndrome. Further research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The drug rivastigmine has been reported to have benefits for people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who do not have Down syndrome. However, people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the general population as well as being physically different in terms of size, metabolism and heart rate, and may therefore have different requirements. This review identified no randomised controlled trials of rivastigmine in people with Down syndrome. Further research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease causing fibrosis and commonly affects the skin and internal organs such as the GI tract, lungs, kidney and heart.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Donepezil is a drug which is thought to discourage the breakdown of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain that is important to how memory functions. Acetylcholine is lacking in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drug donepezil has been reported to have benefits for people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who do not have Down syndrome. However, people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the general population as well as being physically different in terms of size, metabolism and heart rate, and may therefore have different requirements.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

During heart surgery, high doses of corticosteroids aiming to reduce inflammation are often administered. This practice, however, is controversial since there is no evidence available to show clear benefits. Moreover, corticosteroids have the potential of important side‐effects. The aim of this meta‐analysis was to summarize (pool) data from studies on this subject and to estimate the effect of corticosteroid administration on the risk of major complications (death, heart infarction, lung problems) following heart surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Depressive states represent frequent complications among cancer patients and are more common amongst advanced cancer patients. Psychotherapy comprises of various interventions for ameliorating or preventing psychological distress conducted by direct verbal or interactive communication, or both, and is delivered by health care professionals. It is a patient‐preferred and promising strategy for treating depressive states among cancer patients. Several systematic reviews have investigated the effectiveness of psychotherapy for treating depressive states among cancer patients. However, the findings are conflicting, and no review has focused on depressive states among patients with incurable cancer. The review authors conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials to investigate the effects of psychotherapy on the treatment of depressive states among patients with advanced cancer. The review authors found that psychotherapy was useful for treating depressive states in advanced cancer patients. However, little evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapy for patients with clinically diagnosed depression including major depressive disorder. Future studies to investigate and clarify the usefulness of psychotherapy for treating clinically diagnosed depression in terminally ill patients are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Non‐systemic vasculitic neuropathy ('isolated vasculitic neuropathy') is a rare disease causing progressive, disabling, painful loss of sensation with muscle weakness in arms and legs that is often asymmetrical. The diagnosis is made through the finding of inflammation of blood vessels confined to nerve or muscle tissue, or both, and by excluding other conditions that could be the cause, such as systemic vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels affecting multiple organs in the body), rheumatic diseases, or any other cause for the neuropathy. This is an updated review. No randomised controlled clinical trials have been performed on which to base immunosuppressive treatment for non‐systemic vasculitic neuropathy. Blinded randomised trials of adding other immunosuppressive agents to corticosteroids are needed. Such trials will need sufficiently long follow‐up periods to evaluate treatment efficacy with disability outcome measures designed and validated for assessing change in immune‐mediated inflammatory neuropathies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Raynaud's phenomenon is a disease that causes decreased blood flow and circulation to patients' extremeties. Symptoms include discolouration, pain, and in some severe cases ulceration of the hands and feet. It is most often triggered by cold, stress, and emotional discomfort. Primary Raynaud's phenomenon has no underlying disease associated with it. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon is most often associated with scleroderma, but may also be related to systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, Sjorgen's syndrome, dermatomyositis or rheumatoid arthritis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

It has been suggested that peptides from gluten and casein may have a role in the origins of autism and that the physiology and psychology of autism might be explained by excessive opioid activity linked to these peptides.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and adverse cardiac events. Screening for CAD is therefore an important part of preoperative evaluation for kidney transplant candidates. There is significant interest in the role of non‐invasive cardiac investigations and their ability to identify patients at high risk of CAD. 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is a broad term including conditions such as heart attack, angina and stroke, is a global healthcare burden. However, it is thought that CVD risk can be reduced by targeting modifiable risk factors such as stress. One technique used to reduce stress is transcendental meditation (TM). This review assessed the effectiveness of TM in healthy adults and adults at high risk of CVD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Premature babies who are not yet ready to digest and absorb full milk feeds are given lipids through a vein to improve their nutrition. The issue of how early the lipids should be introduced to be advantageous while causing no harm is a matter of debate. The review found that, while no side effects were reported, there was no statistically significant benefit of introducing lipids before five days of age. Long term effects of early introduction of lipids in premature babies have not been reported.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Not stitching the peritoneum after caesarean section takes less theatre time and therefore has less cost, but information on possible long‐term disadvantages are limited.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know about the effect of exercise on arm and shoulder movement problems due to breast cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

The main question addressed by this review produced by the Cochrane Oral Health Group was whether or not treatment for moderate to severe gum disease (periodontitis) also has an effect on the prevention or management of heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Leprosy is a long‐term infectious disease. Leprosy bacteria cause damage to the skin and peripheral nerves (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord). This damage can stop nerves from working normally and cause disability. Corticosteroids, especially prednisolone, are often used to treat nerve damage in leprosy, but their long‐term effect is uncertain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Women who develop pre‐eclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in the urine) before 34 weeks of pregnancy (early onset) are at risk of severe complications, and even death. These involve the woman's liver, kidneys, clotting system and cause neurological disturbances such as headache, visual disturbances, and exaggerated tendon reflexes. If the placenta is involved, this can cause growth restriction or reduced amniotic fluid, placing the baby at risk. The only known cure for pre‐eclampsia is delivery of the baby. Being born too early can in itself have problems for the baby, even with the administration of corticosteroids 24 to 48 hours beforehand to help mature the lungs. Some hospitals follow a policy of early delivery within 24 to 48 hours, interventionist management, whilst others prefer to delay delivery until it is no longer possible to safely stabilise the woman's condition, expectant management.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Review question: Cochrane authors reviewed available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the use of antibiotics for the treatment of pregnant women with intra‐amniotic infection (chorioamnionitis).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Very low birth weight infants (infants weighing < 1500 grams at birth) are at risk of developing a severe bowel disorder called necrotising enterocolitis (where the bowel becomes inflamed and dies). It is thought that one way to prevent this condition may be to limit the milk feeds that infants receive each day for the first few weeks after birth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 30, 2017

We wanted to assess the effects of any treatment for nerve damage that occurs in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We planned to use the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

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