Home > Search Results

Results: 1 to 20 of 23

Providing locomotor training to people with spinal cord injury to improve walking ability

A traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a lesion of neural elements of the spinal cord that can result in any degree of sensory and motor deficit, autonomic or bowel dysfunction. Locomotor training for walking is used in rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) and might help to improve a person's ability to walk. However, many strategies exist to improve this function, such as treadmill training with and without bodyweight support, robotic‐assisted gait training and electrical stimulation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatments other than medication for people with chronic pain after spinal cord injury

Many people living with spinal cord injury (SCI) have chronic pain. Besides pain medication, other treatment possibilities are commonly offered. This systematic review aims to summarise available evidence on the effectiveness and possible side effects of other forms of treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011
Show search results within this document

Chronic wounds: Overview

Minor injuries to our skin usually heal quite quickly on their own. But some wounds close very slowly, keep on opening up, or do not heal at all. Doctors refer to a wound that that does not heal for a long time as a chronic wound. A circulation disorder or diabetes are common causes.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 23, 2015

Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central nervous system diseases

Individuals with central nervous system disease or injury have a much higher risk of loss of bowel control and severe constipation than other people. This is called neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). It can be very difficult to treat constipation without causing bowel leakage, or to prevent bowel leakage without causing constipation. The time spent on emptying the bowel is nearly always much greater for these individuals. Bowel problems like this cause a lot of anxiety and distress and can reduce the quality of life of those who suffer them. This review of research about NBD could be of interest to individuals with any damage to the central nervous system caused by disease or injury, or present at birth, which has a long term effect on how their bowel works.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Interventions aimed at improving and restoring mobility after hip fracture surgery in adults

The aim of care after surgery for hip fracture is to get people safely back on their feet and walking again. Initially, people may be asked to rest in bed and restrict weight bearing. Then various strategies to improve mobility, including gait retraining and exercise programmes, are used during hospital stay and often after discharge from hospital.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

How does the eye work?

Sight is our most complex sense. For our brain to be able to create an image of our surroundings, the eye needs to convert light into electrical signals called nerve impulses. These nerve impulses then travel to the brain along the optic nerve.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 7, 2015

What are the treatment options for non-specific neck pain?

It is often not clear what is causing neck pain. If no clear cause can be found, there are a lot of treatment options that can be tried out. These include applying heat or cold, doing neck exercises and taking painkillers. But only a few of these treatments have been shown to help in good-quality studies.Neck pain usually goes away on its own within a few days or weeks. In most cases no clear cause can be found. It is then referred to as "non-specific neck pain." Sometimes neck pain lasts longer and may become chronic. It is considered to be chronic if it lasts longer than three months.Although non-specific neck pain is very common, only a few good-quality studies have looked at the various treatment options. None of the treatment options have been clearly shown to provide long-term neck pain relief.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 2, 2015

Using a scalpel compared with electrosurgery for making surgical incisions in the abdomen

During abdominal operations, surgeons may need to make cuts (incisions) in the body. This can either be done by using scalpels or electrosurgery. A scalpel is an extremely sharp bladed instrument used to cut the skin and underlying tissue. Electrosurgery is a method of separating tissues using electricity. An electrical current is passed from the tip of the instrument which causes the tissue to rapidly heat up. As they heat up, the cells burst and vaporise. The surgeon will move the instrument along the tissue, causing more cells to be destroyed and a cut, or incision, to be created. The potential benefits of using electrosurgery include reducing the amount of blood lost, dry and rapid separation of tissues, and a reduced risk of surgeons accidentally cutting themselves. The disadvantages of this technique include the possibility of poor wound healing, there are concerns that large or excessive scars may form, and it is thought that there is the potential for an increase in the risk of adhesions forming. Adhesions are potentially painful links of tissue that develop between the site of the incision and organs or other surfaces in the abdomen.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Epilepsy: Overview

In epilepsy, certain areas of the brain or all areas of the brain are overactive, sending too many signals. Some people have their first seizure in childhood, and others have their first seizure in older age.Medication can help to prevent seizures and maintain a good quality of life.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 13, 2016

Carpal tunnel syndrome: Overview

Having your hand fall asleep now and then is not that uncommon. It goes numb and there may be a tingling sensation. People who have carpal tunnel syndrome experience similar symptoms, but they keep coming back and are usually accompanied by pain. Physical labor can can also increase the likelihood of these symptoms. Here you can read about options for getting relief.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 5, 2014

Surgery for epilepsy

Focal epilepsies are caused by abnormal electrical discharges in specific (localised) parts of the brain. In most people the resulting epileptic seizures can be controlled with medication. In up to 30% of people these seizures are not controlled by medication. If the site of origin of these signals (the epileptogenic zone) can be located from the description of the seizures, or from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (a medical imaging scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body) and electroencephalography (EEG) findings (recording of electrical activity along the scalp) the person should be offered the chance of having the epileptogenic zone removed. We studied the factors (characteristics of the people undergoing surgery and details of surgery type) that might be linked to the best chance of surgical cure of epileptic seizures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Enhanced glucose control for preventing and treating diabetic neuropathy

Diabetes is defined as high sugar levels in the blood. There are two forms of the disease. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes less responsive to insulin. Regardless of the type of diabetes, many people develop a disabling neuropathy. Neuropathy is a condition that results in numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness that typically starts in the feet and progresses up the legs. The distribution is often described as a stocking glove pattern since the feet are affected first followed by the legs and fingers. The most common treatment for diabetes is control of blood sugar levels in an attempt to prevent the many complications, including neuropathy. This review identified 17 randomized studies that addressed whether more aggressive attempts to lower blood glucose levels prevent people from developing neuropathy. Seven of these studies were conducted in people with type 1 diabetes, eight in type 2 diabetes, and two in both types. However, only two studies in type 1 diabetes including 1228 participants and four studies in type 2 diabetes including 6669 participants investigated our primary outcome. In type 1 diabetes, there was a significant effect of more aggressive therapies in preventing neuropathy compared with standard treatment. In type 2 diabetes, more aggressive therapy was also beneficial in preventing symptoms and signs of clinical neuropathy, but the result was not statistically significant as measured by the primary method selected for this review. However, there was a significant positive effect on the amount of nerve damage measured with electrical nerve conduction tests and a special machine to measure the threshold of detection of vibration in both types of diabetes. Overall, the evidence indicates that more aggressive treatments of sugar levels delay the onset of neuropathy in both types of diabetes. No other treatments have proven effective to date. However, the beneficial effect has to be balanced against the significantly increased risk of dangerously low blood sugar levels that can occur in both types of diabetes and which can lead to brain injury amongst other issues.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatments for Fecal Incontinence: A Review of the Research for Adults

This summary will answer these questions: What is FI? What are treatment options for FI? What have researchers found about how well FI treatments work? What are possible side effects or complications of the treatments? What should I discuss with my health care professional?

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 5, 2016

Surgical versus non‐surgical treatment after kneecap dislocation

The patella or kneecap is a lens‐shaped bone situated at the front of the knee. It is incorporated into the tendon of the quadriceps muscles of the thigh and moves within a groove at the lower end of the thigh bone (femur). Patellar dislocation occurs when the patella completely moves out of this groove. It typically occurs in young and physically active people with minimal trauma when they twist the bent knee with the foot fixed to the ground, for example, during sporting activities. The most common recurrent symptom reported by people is patella or knee cap instability. It may be associated with abnormal shape of the knee joint bones, weakness of the muscles around the hip or knees or tightness of soft tissues on the outside of the knee.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Epilepsy in adults: Treatment with medication

Epilepsy medications can prevent seizures. But they do not work in everyone. It is sometimes possible for people to stop taking medication if they haven't had a seizure for several years.An epileptic seizure is caused by hyperactivity in the brain's nerve cells. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) work by lowering this level of activity. Although AEDs do not cure the underlying causes of epilepsy, they can lower the risk of seizures.The medicine is available in the form of tablets, capsules or syrups. Some can also be injected into a vein, given intravenously through a drip (IV infusion), or inserted into the rectum in the form of a suppository. They can have some unpleasant side effects, but are usually well tolerated at low doses. That is why it is important for each individual person to consider whether to have treatment and, if so, what dose of which medication would be suitable.It is impossible to know beforehand whether a particular drug will help. Some people stop having seizures after taking the first medication they try. Other times it can take much longer to find the right treatment. In some cases the drugs do not help, or only help very little.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 13, 2016

Medicines To Treat Alcohol Use Disorder: A Review of the Research for Adults

This summary will tell you about: What alcohol use disorder is Medicines to treat alcohol use disorder What research says about how well the medicines work Possible side effects of the medicines Things to talk about with your doctor

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 16, 2016

Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about constipation, impaction, bowel obstruction, and diarrhea as complications of cancer or its treatment. The management of these problems is discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 6, 2016

Pruritus (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about pruritus (itching of the skin) as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of pruritus are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 15, 2016

Acupuncture (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about acupuncture as a treatment for people with cancer or cancer-related disorders.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: November 1, 2016

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (222)...

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...