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About - Croup

Croup is characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stridor (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.

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This review looked at trials of inhaled epinephrine for the treatment of children with croup and is comprised of only eight studies with 225 participants. Of the eight included studies, six were assessed as having low risk of bias and two as unclear risk of bias (based upon assessment of adequate random sequence generation, allocations concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, completeness of outcome data, and selective reporting). Studies assessed a variety of outcome measures and few studies examined the same outcomes; therefore, most outcomes contained data from a maximum of three studies, and in some cases only single studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Croup is an acute illness commonly seen in children up to six years of age but mostly by the age of two. It is triggered by viral infections causing upper airway obstruction with varying degrees of respiratory distress. Mostly, it is mild and transient and resolves with supportive care. Croup is characterised by a barking cough, hoarseness, varying degrees of inspiratory stridor (abnormal breathing sound) and chest wall retractions and is usually preceded by one to three days of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. The peak croup seasons are autumn and winter but can occur at any time.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Croup is common in children and is thought to be triggered after a viral infection. Croup causes swelling in the throat and windpipe (trachea) and causes hoarseness, a barking cough and noisy breathing. Croup usually gets better by itself but sometimes drugs are used to try and improve this condition. The review looked at trials of one type of steroid drug, glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids can reduce the swelling and make it easier for the child to breathe. We found that glucocorticoids can start improving croup in children within six hours (14 studies, 1031 children). The effect lasts about 12 hours (eight studies, 532 children), lessens the need for other drugs, and shortens hospital stays by 12 hours (eight studies, 795 children). There were no adverse events associated with glucocorticoids. Additional studies are needed to determine the best dose of glucocorticoids.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. There is an effective vaccine which can prevent measles, nevertheless 30 to 40 million people worldwide still develop measles annually. Each year measles causes more than half a million deaths and is responsible for an estimated 44% of the 1.7 million vaccine‐preventable deaths among children. Measles is associated with complications such as pneumonia, ear infections, throat infections, diarrhea and conjunctivitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

The use of inhaled nebulized epinephrine after extubation in newborn infants is not supported or refuted by evidence from randomised controlled trials. Following mechanical ventilation, airway swelling and obstruction can occur in newborn infants (especially after prolonged, traumatic or multiple intubations). This may compromise breathing and cause failure of extubation. Because epinephrine can decrease swelling and its effect has been proven in the treatment of croup in infants, it has been used immediately after extubation to prevent breathing problems. The reviewers did not identify any studies that examined clinically relevant outcomes following the use of nebulized epinephrine in newborn infants. They concluded that there is no evidence either supporting or refuting the use of inhaled nebulized epinephrine in newborn infants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Measles is caused by a virus and possible complications include pneumonia. Measles is a major cause of death in children in low‐income countries and is particularly dangerous in children with vitamin A deficiency. Eight studies involving 2574 participants were included in this review and we found that there was no significant reduction in mortality in children receiving vitamin A. However, vitamin A megadoses (200,000 international units (IUs) on each day for two days) lowered the number of deaths from measles in hospitalized children under the age of two years. Two doses of vitamin A are not considered to be too expensive, and are not likely to produce adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Asthma is the most common disorder of the respiratory system (the organs that help you breathe) in pregnancy, affecting up to one in eight women. During pregnancy asthma can improve, worsen or remain unchanged. Poorly controlled asthma may lead to complications for mothers including pre‐eclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in the urine), gestational diabetes (high blood glucose) and caesarean birth; complications for babies may include death, preterm birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) and being born low birthweight. Maintaining adequate control of asthma during pregnancy, including effective management and prevention of exacerbations, is the goal of management. In pregnancy, women may be concerned about risks of taking medications, and their health professionals may be uncertain about best management strategies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

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