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Family and parenting interventions in children and adolescents with conduct disorder and delinquency aged 10‐17

Conduct disorder and delinquency are significant problems for children and adolescents and their families, with the potential to consume much of the resources of the health, social care and juvenile justice systems. A number of family and parenting interventions have been recommended and are used for these conditions. The aim of this review was to determine if these interventions are effective in the management of conduct disorder and delinquency in children and adolescents, aged 10‐17. Current evidence suggests that family and parenting interventions for juvenile delinquents and their families have beneficial effects on reducing time spent in institutions. This has an obvious benefit to the participant and their family and may result in a cost saving for society. These interventions may also reduce rates of later arrest, but at present these results need to be interpreted with caution, because of diversity in the results of studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Antiepileptic drugs for treating recurrent aggression

Various medicines, which are collectively termed 'antiepileptic drugs', have been used to treat persistent aggression. This review systematically examines the evidence supporting this practice. From the evidence available, we were unable to draw any firm conclusion about using these medicines to treat aggression. Four antiepileptic drugs (valproate/divalproex, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin) helped to reduce aggression in at least one study. However, for three of these drugs (valproate, carbamazepine and phenytoin) we found at least one other study where there was no significant improvement. Further research is needed to clarify which antiepileptic drugs are effective for whom. Such research is best carried out using carefully designed clinical trials. Such trials need to take account of the type of aggression displayed, the severity of the aggression, and any other disorders experienced by the participants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Atypical antipsychotic drugs for disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths

To review the effect and safety of atypical antipsychotics (which are newer‐generation major tranquillisers), compared to placebo (dummy pill), for treating disruptive behaviour disorders (e.g. defiance, disobedience, hostility) in children and youths.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Treating Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Teens: A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers

This summary will answer these questions: What are disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs)? How are DBDs treated? » Psychosocial treatment (treatment with a trained therapist) » Medicines What have researchers found about treatments for DBDs? What are possible side effects of medicines for DBDs? What should I talk about with my child's or teen's health care professional?

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 31, 2016

Vitamin B6 and magnesium in combination for children with autism spectrum disorder

Studies investigating the effect of vitamin B6 in improving the behaviour of children with autism spectrum disorder have been reported for over three decades. The purpose of this review was to summarize those studies and analyse the effectiveness of vitamin B6 as an intervention. Only three studies met the inclusion criteria of this review and of these only one study reported adequate data for analysis. Results were inconclusive and sample sizes were small. Therefore the use of vitamin B6 for improving the behaviour of individuals with autism cannot currently be supported. Further research using larger, well‐designed trials is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Psychological treatments compared with treatment as usual for obsessive compulsive disorder

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling anxiety disorder characterised by recurrent obsessions, such as persistent thoughts, impulses or mental images, that promote anxiety, together with compulsions, such as repetitive behaviours or mental acts, that are performed in response to the obsessions. Currently the most commonly used therapies for OCD are pharmacological therapies, followed by psychotherapies, particularly cognitive behavioural approaches. We reviewed studies that compared psychological interventions to treatment as usual groups who either received no treatment, or were on a waiting list for treatment or received usual care. We found eight studies, which together suggested that cognitive and/or behavioural treatments were better than treatment as usual conditions at reducing clinical symptoms. Baseline OCD severity and depressive symptom level predicted the degree of response. However, the conclusions were based on a small number of randomised controlled trials with small sample sizes. There were no trials of other forms of psychological treatment such as psychodynamic therapy and client‐centred therapy, and a lack of available evidence for the long‐term effectiveness of psychological treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Chelation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are types of disorders characterised by difficulties in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours. It has been suggested that increased levels of toxic metals result in more severe symptoms of ASD, and that excretion of these heavy metals brought about by use of pharmaceutical chelating agents (chemicals that are injected into the blood stream to bind to and remove toxic heavy metals from the body) may lead to improvement of symptoms.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Parent training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder. For a child to be diagnosed with ADHD, adults such as parents, carers, healthcare workers or teachers must have noticed higher levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity in the child before the age of seven years compared to children of similar age. The inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity must be observed in a range of situations, for a substantial period of time and cause impairment to the child’s learning or social development. Parent training programmes aim to equip parents with techniques to manage their child's 'difficult' or ADHD‐related behaviour (that is their inattention and hyperactivity‐impulsivity).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatment for speech disorder in Friedreich ataxia and other hereditary ataxia syndromes (inherited disorders of movement co‐ordination)

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of treatment on speech difficulties in people with Friedreich ataxia and other hereditary ataxias.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Psychological therapies for preventing post‐traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents

Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and negative psychological and social outcomes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Antipsychotic Medicines for Children and Teens: A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers

This summary discusses using antipsychotic medicines to treat psychiatric conditions in children. It explains what medical research says about the benefits and possible side effects of these medicines when taken by children. This summary does not discuss other medicines to treat psychiatric conditions or non-medicine treatment options. It can help you talk with your child’s doctor to decide if an antipsychotic medicine is right for your child.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 4, 2012

Newer antidepressants for depression in children and adolescents

Depression is common in young people and can contribute to a variety of negative outcomes, such as poor academic functioning, difficulties in peer and family relationships, increases in substance use, and both attempted and completed suicide. This review contained 19 trials (with a total of 3353 participants) testing the effectiveness of newer generation antidepressants (these are antidepressants developed and used since tricyclic antidepressants were developed). These include the well‐known selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that have an impact primarily on the brain chemical called serotonin, as well as several other newer classes of antidepressants now being used, which aim to target noradrenaline and dopamine as well as serotonin and include selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), norepinephrine dopamine disinhibitors (NDDIs) and tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs)) for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Based on 14 of the trials (2490 participants in total), there was evidence that those treated with an antidepressant had lower depression severity scores than those on placebo, however, the size of this difference was small. Based on 17 trials (3229 participants in total), there was evidence of an increased risk (64%) of suicide‐related outcomes for those on antidepressants compared with those given placebo. Where rates of adverse events were reported, this was higher for those prescribed an antidepressant. There was no evidence that one particular type of newer generation antidepressant had a larger effect than the others when compared to placebo.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Pharmacotherapy for Behcet's syndrome

Behcet's syndrome is a multisystemic disorder presenting with recurrent oral and genital ulcerations as well as ocular involvement. Treatment of Behcet's syndrome is symptomatic and empirical.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Family therapy for those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterised by deliberately maintained low body weight and distorted body image. Those with AN have many medical and psychological complications and the risk of dying from the disease is relatively high.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Carbamazepine versus valproate monotherapy for epilepsy

No reliable evidence to distinguish between carbamazepine and valproate for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic‐clonic seizures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Opiods for restless legs syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a very common neurological disorder in which patients complain of an intense need to move their legs, and unpleasant sensations felt deep in their legs, all occurring while at rest, mostly at bedtime. The number of patients complaining of RLS varies according to race, gender, age, country, and health status. About 5% to 10% of people are affected; , and, among these, 2% to 5% need continual pharmacological treatment (medication). When RLS does not respond to medications generally used for Parkinsons Disease and epilepsy, their doctors often prescribe opioids.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Talking therapies and physical therapies for medically unexplained physical symptoms: a review of the evidence

People with unexplained physical symptoms (somatoform disorders) and their family and friends.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Oral evening primrose oil and borage oil for eczema

Eczema is an itchy and red skin condition, which may affect 20% of people world wide at some time in their life. Though it may improve with age, there is no cure. Many children outgrow this disorder as they reach secondary school age. Constant itch makes life uncomfortable for those with this condition, no matter what age they are.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Self management interventions for type 2 diabetes in adults with severe mental illness

Diabetes is one of the most common long‐term conditions, affecting around 415 million people worldwide. People with severe mental illness are twice as likely to develop diabetes as those without mental health problems because of many factors, including antipsychotic medication side effects and inadequate 'lifestyle' such as poor diet and low levels of physical activity. Once diagnosed, type 2 diabetes is managed through a combination of medication and behavioural changes. When diabetes is poorly managed, people can develop severe and life‐threatening complications. Healthcare providers have developed patient education programmes to help people to self manage their diabetes, and to reduce the likelihood of these complications. Although many programmes for type 2 diabetes have been found to be effective, little is known about programmes that have been specifically tailored to meet the needs of people with severe mental illness.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common disease in which a form of chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland results in reduced function of the gland. It is an auto‐immune disorder, which means that a person's own immune system attacks the thyroid gland, so that it no longer makes adequate quantities of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). Common clinical manifestations include feeling cold, depressive mood, dry skin, puffy eyes, constipation, weight gain, slowed heart rate, joint and muscle pain and fatigue. Some but not all people with Hashimoto's thyroiditis have an enlarged gland, also called a goitre. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is more common in women than in men and tends to run in families. Other auto‐immune diseases often occur simultaneously, such as vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes type 1. The disease does not always require treatment, but when it does, it is treated with synthetic thyroid hormone replacement (sometimes desiccated thyroid hormone is used, which is not synthetic). Selenium is an essential trace element that is required in small amounts for correct functioning of the immune system and the thyroid gland.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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