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Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at risk of postoperative pulmonary complications such as pneumonia. These complications prolong postoperative recovery and may even lead to death. Increased physical fitness improves people's functional capacity, including their lungs, and could result in individuals being better prepared to withstand the consequences of the physical stress of surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Background: Inspiration (breathing in) is produced by the shortening of various muscles that stretch the lungs to increase their size like rubber balloons. During this phase, oxygen enters the lungs. When these muscles stop their contractions, the lungs go back to their initial size. During this phase, carbon dioxide goes out. When patients are cared for under general anaesthesia, some of the drugs used will stop the movements of the muscles controlling lung size. Insufflation is the act of mechanically forcing air into a patient's respiratory system. A machine is required to replace the effects of the muscles. A mixture of gas containing oxygen is blown into the lungs. It is actually not known whether is better to blow small volumes of gas at a higher rate or bigger volumes at a lower rate. In this review we tried to determine whether this volume should be lower or higher than 10 millilitres per kilogram of body weight.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of different strategies in the frequency of suctioning of newborn babies that are on ventilators. Our main interest was prevention of lung damage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

A nerve block prevents or relieves pain by interrupting pain signals that travel along a nerve to the brain. It involves an injection of local anaesthetic (a numbing agent) around a nerve either during or immediately after surgery. Pain relief from nerve block may last only a few hours after surgery, after which people may experience moderate to severe pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

We reviewed the evidence that mechanically pushing air into the lungs through a mask helps clear mucus, improves breathing overnight, reduces respiratory failure and improves exercise tolerance.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 20, 2017

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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