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Your blood pressure is constantly changing. It fluctuates every time the heart beats, and exertion or excitement can affect it too. So it is never that simple to get a correct measurement.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 25, 2016

We reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide for treatment of high blood pressure in the pulmonary vessels in infants and children born with heart disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 3, 2014

Pre‐eclampsia (a condition associated with high blood pressure during pregnancy) or toxaemia affects a significant number of pregnancies and is a major cause of serious illness and even death of mothers and babies during pregnancy and shortly after. Pre‐eclampsia can cause decreased blood flow to the kidneys resulting in kidney failure and fluid accumulation in the lungs and other organs. Managing fluid shifts is, thus, crucial to preventing and managing such complications. The pulmonary artery catheter is one method of monitoring fluid status. The pulmonary artery catheter is a special device placed inside of the pulmonary artery for  measurement of pressures in the different parts of heart, which helps to monitor the fluid balance in the body. Although it seem to be the most reliable method for monitoring of fluid shifts, the placement of pulmonary artery catheters may be associated with the highest risk of complications. No randomised trials involving pulmonary artery catheterisation were found and, thus, there is no robust data to support or disregard the use of this intervention. The complexity of this procedure and the skills needed to perform it may have affected the lack of randomised trials. Nevertheless, fluid management is still an important issue in managing and preventing kidney failure and accumulation of fluid in the lungs and other organs in the context of pre‐eclampsia and pulmonary artery catheterisation is a potential technique for this. We think that further research, especially randomised trials, is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 13, 2012

Not enough evidence to show whether wearing a blood pressure monitoring device for 24 hours during pregnancy is better at detecting hypertension than clinic tests.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 22, 2002

This summary will help you learn about measuring your blood pressure at home. It is created to help you and your doctor decide if checking your blood pressure at home is a good idea for you. This summary will also tell you about the research on blood pressure monitors and will give you questions to ask your doctor.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 22, 2012

We wanted to compare the effect of routine shunting versus selective or no shunting during carotid endarterectomy, and to assess the effect of different methods for selection of people for shunting.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 23, 2014

The brain is situated in a rigid box (the skull) that cannot expand, so normal swelling from injury cannot occur. When brain swelling does occur, pressure inside the skull rises. This makes it harder for the heart to pump the oxygen‐rich blood into the brain needed for recovery. If treating physicians cannot control swelling, the lack of blood supply to the swollen brain can cause further brain damage. Efforts to avoid this damage can include regular monitoring of the pressure inside the skull (intracranial). There are different ways to monitor pressure. One commonly used method is to insert a small probe into the skull. But whenever something is put into the skull, there is a chance it may cause bleeding or an infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 2, 2015

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to a common condition of narrowing of the arteries of the lower limbs that restricts blood flow; in the most severe cases, PAD can cause pain at rest, ulcers and gangrene. Amputation may be required if resistant pain or sepsis ensues, unless an intervention is undertaken to improve arterial perfusion (delivery of blood to cells and tissues). One such intervention is lumbar sympathectomy, whereby nerves that stimulate constriction of arteries are destroyed. This is done mainly when other treatments such as reconstruction are not possible and when no treatment would result in amputation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: December 13, 2016

The aim of this Cochrane review was to find out if prescribing by health professionals other than doctors delivers comparable outcomes to prescribing by doctors. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found 46 studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 22, 2016

Older people are especially prone to developing chronic kidney disease. The most common causes are diabetes and high blood pressure. The disease often goes unnoticed for a long time because poorly functioning kidneys don’t cause any problems at first. Certain treatments can delay further weakening of the kidneys.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 8, 2018

Lots of people who want to stay healthy go for regular general health check-ups. But the benefits of these check-ups shouldn’t be overestimated. So far studies haven’t proven that regular general health check-ups can protect healthy people from illness or increase their life expectancy.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 7, 2017

Disease management programs (DMPs) are structured treatment programs that aim to improve the management of chronic illnesses. They include regular doctor’s appointments with consultations and check-ups, as well as patient education and self-help advice.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 7, 2017

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

Nine studies involving 1359 participants met the inclusion criteria. Six studies compared individual education to usual care and three compared individual education to group education (361 participants). There were no long‐term studies and overall the quality of the studies was not high. Individual face‐to‐face patient education for type 2 diabetes over a six to twelve month period did not significantly improve glycaemic control, body mass index (BMI ‐ measure of overweight; body weight in kilogram divided through squared height in meters, kg/m2), blood pressure or total cholesterol in the short or medium term compared with usual care. However, there did appear to be a significant benefit of individual education on glycaemic control in a subgroup analysis of studies involving participants with a higher baseline HbA1c greater than 8% (that is, too high blood sugar levels over a couple of months or inadequate 'metabolic control'). In the studies comparing individual education to group education, there was no significant difference between individual or group education at 12 to 18 months nor a significant difference in the impact of individual education versus group education on BMI, systolic or diastolic blood pressure.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 21, 2009

We wanted to assess if giving anaesthetic medicines according to the values shown in the entropy monitor would help in avoiding overdosing or underdosing of patients with these drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 14, 2016

Eye examinations may be necessary for various reasons, for instance due to external eye injuries or sudden vision problems. Vision also tends to get worse with age, so many people end up going to see an eye doctor at some point.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 20, 2016

Late effects of cancer treatment can cause serious, disabling, and life-threatening chronic health conditions that adversely affect the health of aging childhood cancer survivors. Learn about subsequent neoplasms and the cardiovascular, cognitive, psychosocial, digestive, endocrine, immune, musculoskeletal, reproductive, and urinary late effects of pediatric cancer treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 2, 2018

People who are critically ill often need help breathing. One way to do this is called endotracheal intubation. This involves placing a tube into the windpipe (trachea) and having a ventilator (breathing machine) help the patient breathe.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 8, 2015

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review to evaluate the effect of using pharmacists to provide services other than medicine dispensing in low‐ and middle‐income countries. After searching for all relevant studies, they found 12 studies that met their requirements. Their findings are summarised below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 28, 2013

When a baby is born, pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs is high, and when normal breathing is established, this pressure starts to fall. In some babies, this transition does not occur and pressure remains high; this does not allow blood to go to the lungs to get adequate oxygen. This situation is called persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN). Other events can lead to development of high pressure in lung blood vessels that can manifest within a few days after birth. Persistent high pressure in these vessels leads to delivery of less oxygen to all organs of the body. A medication called sildenafil may cause lung blood vessels to relax, allowing improved blood flow and improved delivery of oxygen to all organs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 4, 2017

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