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Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis

We looked for evidence on both beneficial and adverse effects of using appetite stimulants in people with anorexia linked to cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia‐cachexia syndrome

Anorexia‐cachexia syndrome (ACS) is a common clinical problem characterised by loss of appetite and weight loss. It is common in patients who suffer from advanced cancer, AIDS and some other conditions. At present, there is no cure for ACS.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Long‐term drug pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight

This review assessed the long‐term benefits and risks of approved anti‐obesity drugs in clinical trials of 1 to 4 years duration. Sixteen orlistat (10,631 patients), 10 sibutramine (2623 patients) and four rimonabant (6635 patients) studies were examined. High drop‐out rates (30% to 40%) were a limitation of nearly all studies. Compared to placebo, all three drugs reduced weight by around five kg or less and orlistat reduced the number of high‐risk patients who developed diabetes. No data to show that any of the three drugs lowers the risk of death or cardiovascular disease were found. The most prominent side effects were gastrointestinal for orlistat, cardiovascular for sibutramine (raised blood pressure and/or pulse rate) and psychiatric for rimonabant (mood disorders). In Europe, rimonabant is contraindicated for patients with severe depression and/or patients who are treated with antidepressive medications. Rimonabant is furthermore not recommended for patients with other untreated psychiatric conditions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Nintedanib (Vargatef) for advanced lung cancer: Overview

Nintedanib (trade name: Vargatef) has been approved in Germany since 2014 for the treatment of a certain type of advanced lung cancer. It is an option for adult patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung who have already had chemotherapy.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 1, 2015

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): What can help children and teenagers who have ADHD?

A number of different treatment options are available for ADHD. They include parent education, support at school, behavioral therapy and medication. The choice of treatment will mainly depend on the type of ADHD and how severe it is.Children and teenagers who have ADHD are much more inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive than other children of their age. Their behavior can cause conflicts at home and at school. However, it is not always easy to differentiate between minor behavioral problems and ADHD.Some children who have ADHD are mainly inattentive. Others may be more hyperactive or impulsive. The treatment options will largely depend on whether the child tends to be more inattentive or more hyperactive, how old they are, and whether their behavior is more of an issue at home or at school. And, last but not least, how much of a problem it is for everyone involved.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 9, 2015

Treating Binge-Eating Disorder: A Review of the Research for Adults

This summary will answer these questions: What is BED? How is BED treated? » Talk therapy (talking with a trained therapist) » Medicines What have researchers found about how well talk therapy and medicines work to treat BED? What are possible side effects of medicines to treat BED? What should I discuss with my health care professional?

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 24, 2016

Treatment Options for ADHD in Children and Teens: A Review of Research for Parents and Caregivers

This summary discusses the different types of treatment for ADHD. It explains what research says about how each treatment improves symptoms and the risks involved with each treatment. It can help you talk with the doctor about ADHD and your child.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 26, 2012

Depression: Overview

Depression is a common mental health problem. People with depression fall into an emotional black hole for weeks or months, and often see no way out. We have information on diagnosing depression and how medication is used as part of treatment.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 17, 2013

Mirtazapine versus other antidepressive agents for depression

Major depression is characterised by a persistent low mood and loss of interest and pleasure. These symptoms are often accompanied by loss of appetite, insomnia, fatigue, poor concentration, inappropriate guilty feelings and even suicide. Depression was the third leading cause of disease burden among all diseases experienced by humankind in 2002. Antidepressants are used in treatment for major depression. They are the mainstay of treatment. Among them, mirtazapine is known to have a unique pharmacological profile and thus is supposed to differ in its efficacy and adverse effects profile in comparison with other antidepressants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Nutritional support for patients who have had a bone marrow transplant

Bone marrow transplant patients can experience prolonged poor appetite with vomiting and diarrhoea. Malnutrition is a consequence. To prevent this, patients can receive nutritious fluids orally or via a nasogastric tube, or intravenously as parenteral nutrition. The benefits of either route are unclear. Studies were found that compared these interventions but missing data prevents proper assessment of the benefits. However, the limited data available indicates that when patients undergo bone marrow transplantation and are given intravenous fluids and are encouraged to have an oral diet they are less likely to experience infections and are more likely to go home earlier than if they are given standard parenteral nutrition routinely. In the event that patients nutritional intake is inadequate because of an inadequate oral intake or because they are unable to tolerate tube feeding and are given parenteral nutrition with added glutamine they are likely to have less infections but may not necessarily leave hospital earlier.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the causes and management of nutritional problems that occur in patients with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 8, 2016

Benefits and harms of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

We reviewed the evidence of the effects of methylphenidate on the behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Increasing the dose of inhaled steroids or continuing the usual dose to treat asthma attacks in adults and children

Previous asthma treatment guidelines recommended doubling the dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) at the first sign of an asthma attack as part of an action plan. We looked for all studies that have assessed whether such an increase is better than and is as safe as carrying on with the usual ICS dose.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of Cannabis and cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer-related side effects, such as nausea and vomiting.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 27, 2016

Antibiotics compared with no treatment or placebo for the treatment of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis

Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis occurs when a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii gets into the retina (the light‐sensitive layer inside the eye) and the choroid (layer of the eyeball near the retina). This causes inflammation that can scar the retina and reduce vision. Symptoms include a sudden feeling of discomfort in the eye and loss of vision, which usually resolve spontaneously within six to eight weeks. The infection can keep returning, increasing the chances of damage. Antibiotics are sometimes used to try to reduce the inflammation and scarring, or to prevent the infection from re‐emerging, but it is unclear how well they work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Heated, humidified air for the common cold

The common cold is the most common infection in humans. Considered trivial, it does not cause complications but leads to significant work absenteeism due to discomfort caused by the symptoms.The common cold is diagnosed according to the symptoms and treatments are mainly symptomatic. New information, especially regarding the effects of cytokines in human beings, now helps to explain some of the symptoms of colds and influenza, such as fever, loss of appetite, malaise, chilliness, headache, and muscle aches and pains. Many of these signs and symptoms are common and are attributed to congestion arising from swelling of the membranes and thickened mucus inside the nose.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Naltrexone and nalmefene for alcohol dependent patients

Alcohol dependence is a chronic disease, which can develop when alcohol is heavily used over longer periods of time. Alcohol affects various brain regions, including the opioid receptor system, which mediates euphoric and pleasurable effects of alcohol. By blocking alcohol effects at these receptors, the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene can reduce alcohol "liking" and "craving" and thus support alcohol dependent patients in cutting down their drinking. 50 studies with 7793 participants were included in the review, in most studies treatment was provided over a period of three months. The review shows that more patients who took naltrexone were able to reduce the amount and frequency of drinking than those who took an identical appearing, but inert substance (placebo). On average, one out of nine patients was helped by naltrexone. Naltrexone does not have serious side effects, but gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, stomach pain and loss of appetite are common. Some patients also get tired from naltrexone. For injectable formulations of naltrexone, which can be advantageous for patients who have problems with taking their medication on schedule, and the second opioid antagonist nalmefene, the database is still too sparse to allow final conclusions. Nevertheless, the available studies indicate that these drugs might have comparable effects on drinking than oral naltrexone has. Naltrexone does not cause dependency and unlike disulfiram, another medicine that is sometimes used to treat alcohol dependence, it does not make patients feel sick if they drink alcohol while taking it.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Probiotics for the prevention antibiotic‐associated diarrhea in children

Antibiotic‐associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs when antibiotics disturb the natural balance of "good" and "bad" bacteria in the intestinal tract causing harmful bacteria to multiply beyond their normal numbers. The symptoms of AAD include frequent watery bowel movements and crampy abdominal pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

There is insufficient evidence to suggest that enteral tube feeding is beneficial in patients with advanced dementia. Data are lacking on the adverse effects of this intervention

Patients with advanced dementia often develop dysphagia (difficulties swallowing). They also experience changes in appetite and apraxia (difficulty co‐coordinating movements) and may have difficulties feeding themselves. Two methods of enteral tube feeding are commonly used: the administration of food and fluids via a nasogastric tube (a tube that is passed through the nose and into the stomach) or via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) where a feeding tube is inserted into the stomach and is accessed through a permanent incision in the abdominal wall. The decision to use artificial hydration and nutrition in someone with dementia is often emotive and complex. Relatives and carers may request the intervention because they are concerned that the patient may starve; clinicians may be aware of the risks but feel pressurised by institutional, societal or even legal directives to intervene. We found no conclusive evidence that enteral tube nutrition is effective in terms of prolonging survival, improving quality of life, or leading to better nourishment or decreasing the risk of pressure sores. It may actually increase the risk of developing pneumonia due to inhaling small quantities of the feed and even death.  This area is difficult to research but better designed studies are required to provide more robust evidence.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Smoking: Nicotine replacement therapy

Nicotine is a substance that can cause an addiction. Most people who smoke experience unpleasant withdrawal symptoms once they stop smoking. Nicotine replacement therapy can help. People particularly experience withdrawal symptoms in the first week of quitting smoking. Nicotine craving often leads to anxiety, aggression or depression. Some people also have problems concentrating or have an increased appetite. Nicotine replacement therapy can help reduce those withdrawal symptoms. The therapy provides your body with nicotine in a different way to smoking.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 25, 2013

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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