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Alpha‐foetoprotein or liver ultrasonography, or both, for liver cancer screening in patients with chronic hepatitis B

Liver cancer is a leading cause of death among people with chronic hepatitis B infection. Screening such patients with ultrasound of the liver or alpha‐foetoprotein in the blood, or both, is widely performed to detect liver cancer at an early stage. The hope is that early stages of liver cancer can be treated by resection or transplantation, or both, with improved outcomes. Only three trials could be included in this review. One of these trials was conducted in Shanghai, China. It compared screening twice yearly with ultrasound and alpha‐foetoprotein against no screening. The trial has a high risk of systematic errors (bias) and several published reports of the trial provide different results. Another trial was conducted in Toronto, Canada. It compared screening with alpha‐foetoprotein and ultrasound versus screening with alpha‐foetoprotein alone. This trial had too few participants. As there were no participants who were not screened, we cannot assess whether screening is effective in reducing mortality. The remaining trial was published as an abstract only. It was designed to determine the optimal time interval for screening using alpha fetoprotein and ultrasound. The cumulative four‐year survival was not significantly different between the two studied screening intervals of four months and 12 months. Thus, to date, there is insufficient evidence regarding screening for liver cancer among patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Screening tests for Down’s syndrome in first three months of pregnancy

Down's syndrome (also known as Down's or Trisomy 21) is an incurable genetic disorder that causes significant physical and mental health problems, and disabilities. However, there is wide variation in how Down's affects people. Some individuals are severely affected whilst others have mild problems and are able to lead relatively normal lives. There is no way of predicting how badly a baby might be affected.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Second trimester serum tests for Down's Syndrome screening

Background: Down's syndrome occurs when a person has three copies of chromosome 21 ‐ or the specific area of chromosome 21 implicated in causing Down's syndrome ‐ rather than two. It is the commonest congenital cause of mental retardation. Noninvasive screening based on biochemical analysis of maternal serum or urine, or fetal ultrasound measurements, allows estimates of the risk of a pregnancy being affected and provides information to guide decisions about definitive testing.  

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Screening tests for Down’s syndrome in first 24 weeks of pregnancy

Down's syndrome (also known as Down's or Trisomy 21) is an incurable genetic disorder that causes significant physical and mental health problems, and disabilities. However, there is wide variation in how Down's affects people. Some individuals are severely affected whilst others have mild problems and are able to lead relatively normal lives. There is no way of predicting how badly a baby might be affected.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Screening tests for Down’s syndrome in first 24 weeks of pregnancy

Down's syndrome (also known as Down's or Trisomy 21) is an incurable genetic disorder that causes significant physical and mental health problems, and disabilities. However, there is wide variation in how Down's affects people. Some individuals are severely affected whilst others have mild problems and are able to lead relatively normal lives. There is no way of predicting how badly a baby might be affected.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood central nervous system germ cell tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 29, 2016

Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of testicular cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 7, 2016

Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about tests used to detect or screen for liver (hepatocellular) cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 31, 2015

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood extracranial germ cell tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 12, 2016

Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood liver cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 14, 2017

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of extragonadal germ cell tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 24, 2016

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of metastatic cancer that has spread from an unidentified primary tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: March 6, 2017

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of Wilms tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 12, 2017

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood such as cancers of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, reproductive system, skin, and others.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 6, 2017

Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult primary liver cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 20, 2016

Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of ovarian germ cell tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 14, 2016

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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