Home > Search Results

Results: 1 to 20 of 175

Clear

Globally about 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C is a blood‐borne virus and routes of transmission include intravenous drug use, mother‐to‐infant transmission, unsafe medical practices, high‐risk sexual behavior, and blood transfusion. Chronic hepatitis C is in most patients a benign viral infection, but a minority of patients develop liver cirrhosis and may suffer from complications due to cirrhosis or die.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. Globally, an estimated 170 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. Chronic hepatitis C can cause liver damage in the form of inflammation and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis). Liver damage can lead to liver failure and other complications, including liver cancer. The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis C is to prevent complications of hepatitis C infection; this could possibly be achieved by clearing the virus from the blood of the patient (sustained virological response, that is, undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA in serum by sensitivity testing six months after the end of treatment). However, we still need to understand whether the sustained virological response outcome induced by antiviral treatment has any association with patient‐relevant and clinically relevant outcomes. A combination of weekly injections of peginterferon and oral ribavirin represents the current standard of care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in three specific patient subgroups affected by recent licence changes: those eligible for shortened treatment courses [i.e. those with low viral load (LVL) and who attained a rapid virological response (RVR) at 4 weeks of treatment], those eligible for re-treatment following previous non-response or relapse, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2011

Study found that peginterferon alfa-2a or -2b in combination with ribavirin may be effective for the treatment of children and young people with chronic hepatitis C. The results suggest that this therapy is cost-effective compared with best supportive care. However, the available evidence is of poor quality.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: October 2014

Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant public health problem in England and Wales. It is thought that around 0.5% of people aged 15–59 years are chronically infected, although prevalence estimates vary both geographically and in different population groups. Progressive liver disease, as a result of chronic HCV infection, usually develops slowly over 20–50 years and may lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver failure and eventual death. Symptoms are typically mild and non-specific but nevertheless can cause a decrease in quality of life (QoL). Peginterferon alfa and ribavirin combination therapy is currently used in the UK for treatment of chronic HCV, having been recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Successful treatment is considered to be attainment of a sustained virological response (SVR), defined as undetectable serum HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) 6 months after cessation of treatment. Since these recommendations, there have been extensions to the licences for both peginterferons to allow patients who have a low viral load (LVL) and achieve a rapid virological response (RVR) at 4 weeks’ treatment to receive shortened treatment courses; patients who relapsed or did not respond to a previous course of peginterferon alfa combination therapy to undergo a second course; and patients with HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection to receive treatment. This review focuses specifically on these new indications.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2011

The aim of this systematic review and economic evaluation is to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG) and non-pegylated interferon alfa (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) for the treatment of adults with histologically mild chronic hepatitis C infection.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2007

The aim of this systematic review and economic evaluation was to assess the clinical-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pegylated interferon-α combined with ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The comparator was the current standard of treatment, non-pegylated interferon-α combined with ribavirin. Because some patients cannot tolerate ribavirin, treatment with pegylated interferon-α alone was also compared with treatment with non-pegylated interferon-α alone. Additional secondary questions were also addressed, including the effectiveness of retreating non-responders to interferon-α monotherapy, the use of non-invasive tests for gauging the severity of disease (e.g. fibrosis), and the effectiveness of antiviral treatment of patients with mild hepatitis C.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2004

Subject indexing assigned by NLM

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Globally, about 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C is a blood‐borne virus and routes of transmission include intravenous drug use, mother‐to‐infant transmission, unsafe medical practices, high‐risk sexual behaviour, and blood transfusion. Chronic hepatitis C is in most patients a benign viral infection, but a minority of patients develop liver cirrhosis and may suffer from complications due to cirrhosis or die from it.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

End‐stage liver disease due to chronic hepatitis C is the leading cause of death among patients with stable HIV. The recommended treatment for chronic hepatitis C among patients without HIV is peginterferon plus ribavirin. Based on evidence from trials on HIV‐negative patients with hepatitis C, the viral genotype, dose of treatment and duration of therapy may affect the treatment response. This review is the first to evaluate the antiviral effect of peginterferon, ribavirin or amantadine administered in different combinations for a patient group, which has not previously been treated for hepatitis C. A total of 14 randomised clinical trials with at total of 2269 patients have been included in this review.The present review suggests that peginterferon plus ribavirin may also be considered if patients have HIV. The dose of peginterferon was similar to that assessed in trials on patients without HIV (180 microgram or 1.5 microgram/kg once weekly), but the dose of ribavirin was somewhat lower in most trials (800 mg daily). There were considerable differences between the trials possibly related to the dose and duration of treatment or the proportion of patients with different hepatitis C virus genotypes. The benefit of treatment was seen when assessing the proportion of patients with a sustained loss of the hepatitis C virus from the blood and the proportion with improved liver biopsies. No significant differences were seen in clinical outcome measures, including mortality (1%, irrespective of treatment). There were several adverse events. Fatal lactic acidosis and liver failure occurred. Other adverse events included anaemia and flu‐like symptoms that occurred more frequently among patients receiving peginterferon plus ribavirin. No significant differences were seen regarding the risk of depression, mortality, and progression to cirrhosis or to AIDS. Additional randomised trials are necessary to assess the effect in HIV and HCV co‐infected patients of peginterferon plus ribavirin in relation to the duration of therapy, especially in patients with hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3. Additional trials comparing peginterferon plus ribavirin versus interferon plus ribavirin or peginterferon alone do not seem warranted.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver‐related morbidity and mortality. The standard length of treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infected patients is 48 weeks, but the number of patients who are treated successfully with regard to disappearance of the virus from the blood (sustained virological response) is limited. In order to improve it, extending the length of the treatment period has been suggested. We attempted to identify whether extending treatment duration to 72 weeks is better than the standard 48 weeks in a subgroup of patients who have shown a slow viral response.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Influenza is a viral respiratory infection that causes an acute febrile illness with myalgia, headache and cough, and can result in high morbidity and mortality rates during an epidemic. Annual epidemics are thought to result in between three and five million cases of severe influenza and between 250,000 and 500,000 deaths worldwide. Currently, annual vaccination is the primary strategy for preventing influenza, and four influenza antiviral agents (amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir and oseltamivir) have been approved for treatment of influenza. However, high levels of drug resistance have been recorded. Many Chinese medicinal herbs are used to treat and prevent this condition.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

We wanted to assess the effects of any treatment for nerve damage that occurs in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We planned to use the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

The liver is an important organ of the body and has various functions including generation of energy from food; production of material necessary for congealing, processing, and excretion of drugs and waste products in blood; and filtering out the harmful bacteria that enter the body through the gut. Hepatitis C virus can cause damage to the liver usually in an insidious manner (chronic hepatitis C infection). Sometimes, the liver damage can be so severe that the liver is not able to carry out the normal functions, resulting in liver failure. Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for the treatment of liver failure due to chronic hepatitis C infection. However, liver transplantation does not eradicate the virus and the virus can affect the donor liver graft. One of the proposed strategies to treat the recurrence of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in these patients is using antiviral treatments. The effectiveness of these treatments is not known. We performed a detailed review of the medical literature (to February 2013) to determine the benefits and harms of different antiviral treatments for patients with recurrent hepatitis C infection after undergoing liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. We sought evidence from randomised clinical trials only. When conducted properly, such trials provide the best evidence. Two authors independently identified the trials and obtained the information from the trials to minimise error.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. Globally, an estimated 170 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. Chronic hepatitis C can cause liver damage in the form of inflammation and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis). Liver damage can lead to liver failure and other complications, including liver cancer. The aim of the treatment for chronic hepatitis C is to prevent complications of hepatitis C infection. This might be achieved by clearing the virus from the blood of the patient. However, we still need to understand if clearance of virus from blood has any association with patient‐relevant and clinically‐relevant outcomes. A combination of weekly injections of peginterferon alpha and daily oral ribavirin still represents the standard of care for the majority of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Currently, there are two licensed products of peginterferon, peginterferon alpha‐2a and peginterferon alpha‐2b, on the market.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

The liver is an important organ of the body and has various functions including generation of energy from food, production of material necessary for congealing, processing and excretion of drugs and waste products in blood, and filtering out the harmful bacteria that enter the body through the gut. Hepatitis C virus can cause damage to the liver usually in an insidious manner (chronic hepatitis C virus infection). Sometimes, the liver damage can be so severe that the liver is not able to carry out the normal functions, which results in liver failure. Liver transplantation is effective in treating liver failure due to chronic hepatitis C infection. However, liver transplantation does not eradicate the virus and the virus can affect the donor liver graft. One of the proposed strategies to prevent the recurrence of chronic hepatitis C infection in these patients is to give drug treatment before the donor liver graft is affected by chronic hepatitis C infection. The effectiveness of these preventive treatments is not known. The review authors performed a detailed review of the medical literature to February 2013 to determine the benefits and harms of different preventive antiviral treatments for patients undergoing liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The review authors sought evidence from randomised clinical trials only. When conducted properly, such trials provide the best evidence. Two review authors independently identified the trials and obtained the information from the trials to minimise error.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Anaemia is a common complication of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection that necessitates dose reductions or therapy discontinuation. Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) is an alternative to ribavirin (RBV) dose reduction, but its advantage in terms of sustained virological response (SVR) has not been determined yet. In a systematic way, randomized studies were identified that evaluated the effect of EPO administration vs RBV dose reduction on virological response in patients who developed anaemia during anti-HCV therapy. The random-effects model was employed to run meta-analysis. SVR was set as the end point of interest. Data were abstracted from four studies containing 257 patients who developed anaemia during therapy. One hundred and twenty six subjects underwent RBV dose reduction. Patients who received EPO in response to haemoglobin drop had a significantly higher probability of achieving SVR compared with those who underwent RBV dose reduction because of anaemia (relative risk = 1.83 95% CI; 1.41-2.37). No heterogeneity was observed across study results (I(2) = 0). Publication bias assessment was nonsignificant. Our meta-analysis indicates that administration of EPO in patients who develop anaemia during anti-HCV therapy can considerably enhance SVR. Moreover, no adverse event of EPO administration was reported among included subjects.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

AIM: Treatment of hepatitis C genotype 4 (HCV-G4) with pegylated interferon (PEG IFN) has not been adequately studied and is considered to be challenging. The aim of this meta-analysis is to systematically review and evaluate the effectiveness of 48 weeks of combined PEG IFN plus ribavirin (RBV) compared to standard interferon (IFN) plus RBV. The outcome of interest is sustained virological response (SVR).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

BACKGROUND: Given the significant side-effects and healthcare costs associated with telaprevir- or boceprevir-combination therapy, identifying patients likely to respond to dual therapy peg-interferon (Peg-IFN)/ribavirin is highly desirable. Since the perception of how large the pool of patients who may achieve rapid virologic response (RVR) is vaguely ascertained, we searched the literature for this information.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Hepatitis C virus is mainly transmitted by contact with infected blood. Chronic hepatitis C infection affects around 3% of the world's population and progresses slowly. Most patients present without symptoms, or with symptoms like fatigue or liver‐related morbidity (illness). Frequently, the disease is discovered by coincidence because of abnormal laboratory results. Between 5% and 40% of all infected patients will develop severe liver damage, which can cause severe liver‐related morbidities and eventually death. Current treatment consists of pegylated interferon‐alpha plus ribavirin, and in some groups of patients these two agents are administered in combination with antiviral drugs such as telaprevir or boceprevir. It is then possible to eradicate the virus from the blood in at least 70% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the clinical effects are not known.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (628)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (6)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...