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The author's conclusion that the evidence encouraged the use of fexofenadine for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis reflected the evidence presented. This was a generally well conducted review, but the large unexplained discrepancy between the number of participants in the studies and the number included in the analysis means that the conclusion should be viewed with caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Antihistamines inhibit the effects of histamine at H1 receptors. They have a number of clinical indications including allergic conditions (e.g., rhinitis, dermatoses, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, mild transfusion reactions, and urticaria), chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), motion sickness, vertigo, and insomnia.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2010

This guideline has been developed to advise on supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of health and social care professionals, a person with dementia, carers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to practitioners and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with dementia while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for people with dementia and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2007

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a condition characterised by a rash of red itchy raised weals or hives, which appear for no identifiable reason. Other names include chronic idiopathic or chronic ordinary urticaria. 'Spontaneous' differentiates this type of urticaria from 'inducible' or 'physical' urticaria, for which there are specific triggers such as cold or pressure. 'Chronic' indicates that the condition has continued for at least six weeks. Hives may be intensely itchy, and the appearance may be unsightly and distressing to sufferers. In some cases, hives can be accompanied by deeper swelling, known as angio‐oedema, which is most common around the eyes and mouth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 14, 2014

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of omalizumab (OMA) for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in adults and adolescents who remain symptomatic despite H1 antihistamine treatment.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: August 2015

This systematic review found insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of any intervention for adults with Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD). The quality of the evidence was generally poor. Evidence was insufficient to allow recommendation of a trial of any particular intervention. Further research is needed to establish a definition of ETD, its relation to broader middle ear ventilation problems and clear diagnostic criteria.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: July 2014

Each year in the UK, there are between two and nine deaths from anaphylaxis caused by bee and wasp venom. Anaphylactic reactions can occur rapidly following a sting and can progress to a life-threatening condition within minutes. To avoid further reactions in people with a history of anaphylaxis to bee and wasp venom, the use of desensitisation, through a process known as venom immunotherapy (VIT), has been investigated and is in use in the UK. VIT consists of subcutaneous injections of increasing amounts of purified bee and/or wasp venom extract. Pharmalgen® products (ALK Abelló) have had UK marketing authorisation for VIT (as well as diagnosis) of allergy to bee venom (using Pharmalgen Bee Venom) and wasp venom (using Pharmalgen Wasp Venom) since March 1995.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: March 2012

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007

This review aimed to compare the efficacy of montelokast with current therapies for seasonal allergic rhinitis. The authors concluded that there was no evidence to support the use of montelokast (alone or in combination with antihistamines) over intranasal corticosteroids. Limitations in the review methods and the reporting of included studies mean that these conclusions should be viewed with caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

This generally well-conducted review evaluated the effectiveness of desloratadine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The authors concluded that desloratadine was associated with significant beneficial effects on symptoms of allergic rhinitis as well as objective measures of nasal blockage and allergic inflammation. The conclusions are consistent with the results reported and are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

This systematic review of herbal medicines found that there was encouraging evidence to support Petasites hybridus (butterbur) for treating allergic rhinitis, but independent research was needed to confirm these findings. The systematic review was performed using appropriate methods, but a lack of detail about study quality and results made it difficult to verify the reliability of the conclusions.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

This poorly reported review compared the sedating and performance-impairing effects of diphenhydramine versus placebo and second-generation antihistamines. The authors' concluded that no clear and consistent differences existed between diphenhydramine and second-generation antihistamines. Although the review has a number of methodological limitations, the authors' are right to call for further research to clarify the mixed results of the included studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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