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Inflammation of the breast, or mastitis, can be infective or non‐infective. Infective mastitis is one of the most common infections experienced by breastfeeding women. The condition (infective or not) varies in severity, ranging from mild symptoms with some local inflammation, redness, warmth and tenderness in the affected breast through to more serious symptoms including fever, abscess and septicaemia, which may require hospitalisation. Recovery can take time, and there may be substantial discomfort for the affected mother and her baby. Mastitis usually occurs during the first three months after birth and results in the mother being confined to bed for one day, followed by restricted activity. The condition is associated with decreased milk secretion, decreased productivity, and in difficulties caring for the baby. This burden to mothers, along with the cost of care, the potential negative impact on continuation of breastfeeding, and the danger of serious complications such as septicaemia, makes mastitis a serious condition which warrants early diagnosis and effective therapy. The review included two studies and approximately 125 women. One study compared two different antibiotics, and there were no differences between the two antibiotics for symptom relief. A second study comparing no treatment, breast emptying, and antibiotic therapy, with breast emptying suggested more rapid symptom relief with antibiotics. There is very little evidence on the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy, and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 28, 2013

Antibiotics are very effective at clearing urinary tract infections in pregnancy, and complications are very rare.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 19, 2011

It is a requirement of the Children’s National Service Framework that all ill children should have access to high-quality, cost-effective, evidence-based care. Because it is difficult to evaluate the severity of the illness, there is a need for evidence-based guidance to inform healthcare professionals about how to judge whether a child who presents with a fever is likely to develop a serious illness. Healthcare professionals also need advice to support their decision on whether to observe the child, perform diagnostic tests, start treatment such as antibiotics or refer onwards for specialist care. The guidance should also include advice on the best ways to detect fever, the management of fever itself, and what to tell parents and carers who have made contact with healthcare services. The guidance should be applicable to primary and secondary care and should take account of the number of agencies that are involved in giving health care and giving advice to parents and carers. It is also important that parental preferences, as well as the child’s best interests in terms of health outcomes, should be taken into account when considering the various options for investigation and treatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: May 2013

Since the publication of the NICE clinical guideline on the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) in primary and community care in 2003, many changes have occurred within the NHS that place the patient firmly at the centre of all activities. First, the NHS Constitution for England defines the rights and pledges that every patient can expect regarding their care. To support this, the Care Quality Commission (CQC), the independent regulator of all health and adult social care in England, ensures that health and social care is safe, and monitors how providers comply with established standards. In addition, the legal framework that underpins the guidance has changed since 2003.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: March 2012

This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010

This guidance is a partial update of NICE clinical guideline 13 (published April 2004) and will replace it.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: November 2011

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007

Two of the five guidelines in the NICE Trauma Suite relate to fractures. These are titled non-complex and complex fractures. In broad terms the non-complex fractures are those likely to be treated at the receiving hospital, whereas the complex fractures require transfer or the consideration of transfer of the injured person to a specialist centre.

NICE Guideline - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: February 2016

This guideline has been written within a conceptual framework which places the woman and her baby at the centre of care, appreciating that all postnatal care should be delivered in partnership with the woman and should be individualised to meet the needs of each mother-infant dyad. The guideline aims to identify the essential ‘core care’ which every woman and her baby should receive, as appropriate to their needs, during the first 6–8 weeks after birth, based upon the best evidence available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK).

Version: July 2006

Infections that occur in the wound created by an invasive surgical procedure are generally referred to as surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). A prevalence survey undertaken in 2006 suggested that approximately 8% of patients in hospital in the UK have an HCAI. SSIs accounted for 14% of these infections and nearly 5% of patients who had undergone a surgical procedure were found to have developed an SSI. However, prevalence studies tend to underestimate SSI because many of these infections occur after the patient has been discharged from hospital.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: October 2008

The microbial causes of pneumonia vary according to its origin and the immune constitution of the patient. Pneumonia is classified into community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and pneumonia in the immunocompromised. The guideline development process is guided by its scope - published after stakeholder consultation. This guideline does not cover all aspects of pneumonia, but focuses on areas of uncertainty or variable practice and those considered of greatest clinical importance. Best practice guidance on the diagnosis and management of CAP and HAP is offered, based on systematic analysis of clinical and economic evidence with the aim of reducing mortality and morbidity from pneumonia and maximising resources.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: December 2014

The model suggested that a particular strategy (systematic antibiotics, antibiotic impregnated cement and conventional ventilation) would prevent many deep infections and save the NHS the most money

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: July 2016

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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