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Intermittent claudication is a cramping pain, brought on by exercise and relieved by rest, that is caused by an inadequate blood flow to the calf and leg muscles. It is a symptom of atherosclerosis, a disease where fatty deposits build up in the arteries, blocking blood flow. It has been suggested that taking Vitamin E may improve blood flow and boost the body's ability to repair. The review of trials found that more research is needed to show if Vitamin E reduces the effect of intermittent claudication. No adverse effects were found.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Undernutrition is one of the leading underlying causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Providing antioxidants that would help curb excess free radicals in the body may help prevent the development of kwashiorkor. We identified one cluster‐RCT that attempted to investigate this. Based on the published evidence reviewed, we could draw no firm conclusions of the benefits of supplementary antioxidants for the prevention of kwashiorkor in pre‐school children. There is a need for further research in this area to be certain if antioxidant supplementation can help prevent kwashiorkor in young children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Having to take antipsychotic drugs for long periods of time can cause repetitive movements ‐ often of the face and mouth. These are disfiguring and do not necessarily cease once medication is reduced or changed. Vitamin E has been evaluated for treating these movement disorders, but, so far, the benefit of this medication seems small and restricted to avoidance of deterioration.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Giving extra vitamin E to preterm babies can provide some benefits, but it increases the risk of life‐threatening infections. Preterm babies (born before 37 weeks) can develop a range of problems because their organs are not mature. Vitamin E may be able to help prevent or limit some of these problems, but it can potentially also have harmful effects. Breast milk of a woman who has given birth prematurely has higher than usual levels of vitamin E. Preterm babies can be given extra vitamin E as vitamin drops, in vitamin E‐enriched formula, in intravenous fluids, or by injection into their muscles. This review of studies of vitamin E supplements found that while extra vitamin E reduces the chances of some complications (including disease of the retina), the risk of life‐threatening infection is increased. The risk of bleeding in the brain is increased when extra vitamin E is given by vein but decreased when the extra vitamin E is given by other routes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

We wanted to know what effects, if any, vitamin E supplementation (at any dose) has on how often people with cystic fibrosis have health problems due to vitamin E deficiency.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 6, 2017

Vitamin E is found in a variety of foods, including vegetable oils and fats, nuts and seeds. Some animal and non‐interventional studies have suggested it might have a role in the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evidence has linked vitamin E with potentially serious side effects and even an increased risk of death. In this review, we looked for evidence about the effect of vitamin E on people who had either dementia due to AD or milder problems with memory or thinking (mild cognitive impairment or MCI). People with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 18, 2017

Although vitamin E deficiency is rarely seen in healthy adults, for pregnant women, insufficient dietary vitamin E (found in vegetable oils, nuts, cereals and some leafy green vegetables) may lead to complications such as pre‐eclampsia and the baby being born small. In addition, vitamin E deficiency can be made worse by too much iron and so it is important to investigate the optimum amounts for pregnancy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Beta‐carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E cannot be recommended for treatment of liver diseases.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide and its treatment can produce disturbing symptoms including hot flushes, the sudden feeling of heat in the face, neck and chest. Hormonal treatments are used to control such symptoms in postmenopausal women but for women with a history of breast cancer these are not recommended as they can induce cancer growth. The aim of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of non‐hormonal interventions in treating hot flushes in such women.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of quinine on muscle cramps.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Chronic pancreatitis is a persistent inflammation of the pancreas that in the long run can cause irreparable damage. The major causes of chronic pancreatitis are genetics, alcohol toxicity and other conditions that might damage or obstruct the pancreas. This inflammation can cause pain that often is severe and leaves patients socially isolated and unable to perform their jobs. Unfortunately, treatment options are scarce, and often strong morphine‐like pain medications are needed. Patients might benefit from alternative medication without the adverse effects associated with morphine‐like medication. This review summarises the evidence from randomised trials on the effects of antioxidants in chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidants are substances that prevent damage to cells caused by toxic byproducts of oxygen in the body. Levels of these byproducts are increased in chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidants constitute a large group that contains many natural and man‐made products. Examples include vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids (present in tea and cocoa) and many specialised medications. We found 12 randomised trials on this topic. The quality of these trials was mixed, and many had small sample sizes and high rates of dropout. Evidence shows that antioxidants may reduce pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but the reported reduction in pain was small. Whether this small decrease really had an impact on patients' complaints is not clear. Given the methodological problems of these trials, a strong conclusion could not be drawn. Use of antioxidants resulted in adverse effects in about 16% of study participants. Most adverse effects were mild, such as headache, nausea and constipation. However, participants who developed these adverse effects tended to stop using antioxidant medication. Other outcomes important for decision making such as use of analgesics, rate of exacerbation of pancreatitis and quality of life, were not very well reported. Therefore, we were unable to reach conclusions on these outcomes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Previous research on animal and physiological models suggests that antioxidant supplements have beneficial effects that may prolong life. Some observational studies also suggest that antioxidant supplements may prolong life, whereas other observational studies demonstrate neutral or harmful effects. Our Cochrane review from 2008 demonstrated that antioxidant supplements seem to increase mortality. This review is now updated.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Searches for randomised trials were run in 2010 and 2012, review authors found 22 relevant trials that randomised a total of 2041 people with schizophrenia. The trials compared the effects of taking a variety of antioxidants (allopurinol, Ginkgo biloba, N‐acetyl cysteine (NAC), selegiline, vitamins C and E) compared with placebo. Most results showed no real differences between the antioxidants and placebo although there was evidence Ginkgo biloba had a positive effect on psychotic symptoms in the short term. The quality of this evidence was moderate.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of antioxidants and other medicines for Friedreich ataxia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Eczema is a skin condition characterised by an itchy, red rash, which affects 5% to 20% of people worldwide. There is no cure, but many treatments can help improve the skin's condition, making life easier. In those for whom these treatments do not work well or who fear their long‐term effects, there is often a belief that either something in their diet, or something missing in their diet, is making their eczema worse.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

A cataract occurs when the normally clear lens in the eye becomes cloudy. Cataracts are the leading cause of correctable reduced vision worldwide. Most cataracts develop slowly with normal aging. However, cataracts also may be related to genetic diseases and medical conditions such as diabetes. Other factors such as poor nutrition, sun damage, radiation, corticosteroids, smoking, alcohol, eye trauma or other eye surgery may influence cataract formation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Sexual dysfunction is very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Men with CKD frequently suffer from reduced libido, erectile dysfunction and difficulty reaching orgasm. Approximately 50% to 80% of men with CKD have erectile dysfunction and the prevalence has been found to increase with age. For women with CKD, 55% report difficulty with sexual arousal. Dysmenorrhoea, delayed sexual development, impaired vaginal lubrication, dyspareunia and difficulties in reaching orgasm are also frequently observed. Therapies that have been used to treat sexual dysfunction include phosphodiesterase‐5 inhibitors (PDE5i), intracavernous injections, intraurethral suppositories, hormonal therapy, mechanical devices and psychotherapy. Although many clinical studies and reviews have explored the role of these interventions for sexual dysfunction in patients without CKD, the effectiveness and safety of these interventions in patients with CKD have not yet been studied thoroughly. The aim of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of existing interventions for treating sexual dysfunction in patients with CKD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Frequent chest infections in people with cystic fibrosis cause long‐lasting inflammation in their lungs. Cells causing inflammation produce a kind of oxygen molecule (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) which can easily harm proteins and DNA (oxidative damage). To fight these effects, the body may produce antioxidants. The genetic defect in cystic fibrosis leads to an imbalance favouring the high production of harmful ROS over the low level of protective antioxidants. Antioxidant supplements might help reduce the oxidative damage in the lungs from constant infection and build up low levels of antioxidants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

People with restless legs syndrome (RLS) have an irresistible urge to move their limbs to relieve themselves of unpleasant sensations. RLS is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, however the cause is unknown. Patients with RLS often have reduced quality of life and increased risk of developing heart disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Cochrane authors reviewed the evidence of the effect of dietary supplements (e.g. vitamins, minerals, herbs) on period pain (dysmenorrhoea).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

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