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Malaria is a parasitic disease spread by mosquitoes that kills thousands of people worldwide. Artemisinin‐based combination treatments are strongly advocated, but uncertainty about their availability (and cost) remains a major concern. The review includes four small randomized controlled trials, all from Africa, comparing SP plus AS with SP plus AQ for treating uncomplicated malaria. SP plus AQ performed better at destroying blood parasites at 28 days, although resistance to the drugs may have increased since the trials were performed. Adverse events were poorly reported.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 25, 2006

Chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine‐pyrimethamine are relatively inexpensive drugs to treat malaria. Treatment failure is a problem when these drugs are used alone because malaria parasites have become resistant to them. Based on evidence from randomized controlled trials, a combination of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine‐pyrimethamine may reduce treatment failure in some locations. It appears less likely that chloroquine plus sulfadoxine‐pyrimethamine will have a treatment benefit over sulfadoxine‐pyrimethamine alone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 19, 2005

Intermittent preventive treatment is the administration of a complete curative dose of an antimalarial medicine at predefined intervals during pregnancy (from the second trimester) regardless of whether or not the pregnant woman has malaria parasites. Intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women, as is delivered at routine ante‐natal care visits, is a World Health Organization (WHO) recommended policy and has been adopted in the majority of African malaria endemic countries. Since HIV increases the severity of malaria in pregnant women, it is important to evaluate the various drugs and doses needed to prevent malaria in HIV‐positive pregnant women.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 5, 2011

Malaria is a major cause of illness and death in many of the world's poorest countries. It is spread from person to person by the bite of mosquitoes infected with a microorganism called Plasmodium. The Plasmodium species P. falciparum is the most common cause of malaria worldwide and causes the majority of deaths. Uncomplicated malaria is the mild form of the disease which, if left untreated, can progress rapidly to become life threatening. The drugs traditionally used to treat uncomplicated malaria have become ineffective in many parts of the world due to the development of drug resistance.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 8, 2009

To help prevent the malaria parasite from developing resistance to antimalarial medicines, the WHO recommends the use of combination therapy, where malaria infections are treated with more than one drug simultaneously. As azithromycin is an antibiotic that also has an effect on the malaria parasite, we assessed its efficacy and tolerability as an antimalarial when used alone or as part of combination therapy with other antimalarials. Our review of studies conducted over the past 14 years suggests that azithromycin is a relatively weak antimalarial whose efficacy depends on the drug dose and the partner drug in the combination therapy. The data suggest that, among adults, the higher doses needed to achieve an acceptable level of treatment success with malaria may be less well tolerated. Unless the ongoing product and dose optimisation process results in a universally efficacious product or identifies a specific niche application that is complementary to the current scala of more efficacious antimalarial combinations, azithromycin's future as an antimalarial does not look promising.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 16, 2011

P. vivax is one of five species of the malaria parasite known to cause clinical illness. It is a common cause of malaria in Asia, South America and Oceania. Unlike P. falciparum (the commonest cause of malaria in Africa), P. vivax has a liver stage which is not treated by most common antimalarial drugs. This liver stage can become active and cause a relapse of clinical illness weeks or even years after the initial illness.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 25, 2013

Women are more vulnerable to malaria during pregnancy, and malaria may have harmful effects on the baby. Treatment options are becoming more limited because the malaria parasite is developing resistance to existing drugs and due to concerns about whether drugs may harm the baby. Evidence from randomized controlled trials is limited, with few drugs and drug combinations being evaluated.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 8, 2008

Using a pilot system we have categorised this review as: Current question ‐ no update intended (topic covered in another review. Refer to: Sinclair D, Zani B, Donegan S, Olliaro P, Garner P. Artemisinin‐based combination therapy for treating uncomplicated malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD007483. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007483.pub2.) Please see "Published notes" section of the review for more details.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 19, 2005

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether the antimalarial drug mefloquine is efficacious and safe for prevention of malaria in pregnant women living in stable transmission areas. We found six relevant studies to help us answer this question.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2018

Using a pilot system we have categorised this review as: Historical question ‐ no update intended. Please see "Published notes" section of the review for more details.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 22, 2003

Malaria is a parasitic disease spread by mosquitoes. It affects millions of people worldwide and causes significant illness and mortality. Uncomplicated malaria presents with symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and vomiting. The parasite has become resistant to a number of previously effective drugs, and so combinations of drugs are used to try to prevent further resistance. Artemether‐lumefantrine is one such drug combination. This review of trials showed that, although the four‐dose artemether‐lumefantrine regimen was superior to chloroquine, in general the four‐dose regimen was less effective compared with the six‐dose regimen or other drug combinations. The fact that the four‐dose regimen is generally less effective means it is unlikely that it would be used for treating uncomplicated malaria.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 19, 2006

Many conventional treatments for uncomplicated malaria are failing because malaria parasites develop resistance to them. This can be reduced by treating people with combination drugs such as atovaquone‐proguanil. The review found 10 trials, most of low methodological quality and most funded by a single pharmaceutical company. In addition, trials were small and had few participants thus evidence suggesting atovaquone‐proguanil as more effective than a number of single drug treatments at eliminating the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite from the blood was limited. There were few good quality data comparing atovaquone‐proguanil with other new combination therapies. There were not enough data to assess adverse events, but all trials recorded some adverse events.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 19, 2005

Malaria is a parasitic disease spread by mosquitoes. It affects millions of people worldwide and causes significant illness and mortality. Uncomplicated malaria presents with symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and vomiting, and children commonly present with rapid breathing, cough, and convulsions. Severe malaria causes unconsciousness and death. Vaccines are widely considered a necessary component for the complete success of malaria control. The parasite moves through several life‐cycle stages in the human body, during which its molecular makeup changes, at least partially. Vaccines specific for each stage (ie targeting different antigens) are under development. This review looked at vaccinations targeted at the asexual (blood) phase of the parasite's life, when the parasites are in red blood cells. One vaccine for this phase, MSP/RESA (also known as Combination B), has been tested in field trials in Papua New Guinea. It reduced the density of parasites in the blood, but it did not prevent malaria attacks. Blood‐stage vaccines are being actively pursued in further research.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 18, 2006

Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. For this reason, women are encouraged to try and prevent malaria infection during pregnancy by sleeping under mosquito bed‐nets, and by taking drugs effective against malaria throughout pregnancy as chemoprevention.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 10, 2014

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