Home > Search Results

Results: 16

Scopolamine for preventing and treating motion sickness

This Cochrane Review summarises evidence from 14 randomised controlled studies evaluating the effectiveness and safety of scopolamine for motion sickness. The results show that scopolamine is more effective than placebo and scopolamine‐like derivatives in the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness. However, scopolamine was not shown to be superior to antihistamines and combinations of scopolamine and ephedrine. Scopolamine was less likely to cause drowsiness, blurred vision or dizziness when compared to these other agents.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Interventions to treat noisy breathing, or 'death rattle': the unpleasant, gurgling breathing occuring in many patients who are about to die

Approximately half of those relatives and friends who witness it, as well as hospital staff, find the noise of 'death rattle' distressing. For this reason, doctors and nurses try to eliminate the sound using a variety of methods, from changing the position of the patient to giving drugs to stop the noise. The aim of this review is to find out which treatment, if any, is best. Only four of 32 reports identified met the inclusion criteria for this review; none showed a convincing benefit of any single drug over any others. Some treatments may be worth trying but staff should watch carefully for any side effects of the treatment (e.g. agitation or excessively dry mouth). Anxious relatives need explanation, reassurance and discussion about any fears and concerns associated with the terminal phase and 'death rattle'. Research in this difficult area is necessary to understand the cause of the noise, its effect on the patient and those around them and the best ways of managing this condition.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Anticholinergic bronchodilators versus beta2‐sympathomimetic agents for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Shortness of breath is the main complaint of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This symptom worsens during an exacerbation or 'flare' of COPD. Trials comparing ipratropium bromide versus beta‐agonists showed no significant difference in short‐term or long‐term effects (24 hours) on ease of breathing. Side effects of these drugs were reported by only a minority of patients and include dry mouth and tremor, and a 'strange feeling' after drug administration.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Anticholinergic therapy for acute asthma in children

Asthma is a condition that affects the airways (tubes carrying air in and out of the lungs). During an asthma exacerbation (attack), the airways narrow and drugs can be taken to dilate, or widen, the airways. Common bronchodilators (medicines used to widen the airways) are short‐acting beta2‐ agonists (e.g. salbutamol) or anticholinergics (e.g. ipratropium bromide). In this review, we examined if the use of anticholinergic inhalers during an asthma attack in children aged over two years is effective compared to either placebo or another bronchodilator. We also looked at combinations of anticholinergic plus a beta2‐agonist compared to an anticholinergic on its own.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

The effect of adding inhaled corticosteroids to tiotropium and long‐acting beta2‐agonists for managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease which includes the conditions chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is characterised by blockage or narrowing of the airways. The symptoms include breathlessness and a chronic cough. COPD is an irreversible disease that is usually brought on by airway irritants, such as smoking or inhaled dust.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Tiotropium for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Tiotropium (Spiriva) is a bronchodilator drug that has been developed to open the airways in the lungs effectively with once daily dosing. The main aims of therapy in COPD are to reduce exacerbations and related hospitalisations, improve quality of life, and reduce the rate of decline in lung function. The evidence from the trials in the review indicates that, compared with a placebo and ipratropium, tiotropium does reduce exacerbations and related hospitalisations and improves quality of life and symptoms in people with moderately severe COPD, although the evidence with regards to decline in lung function is less clear. Tiotropium caused dry mouth. Compared with other commonly used drugs in COPD, such as long‐acting beta agonists (including salmeterol), there is not enough evidence for us to draw reliable conclusions. In order to better understand the effects of this drug we need long‐term studies (over several years), studies conducted in mild and severe COPD, and additional studies that measure outcomes in relation to other agents used in the treatment of this condition.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Combined inhalers compared to tiotropium inhalers for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a general term referring to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, or both. COPD occurs when airflow to the lungs is restricted. Symptoms include cough and breathlessness and inhalers are commonly used to prevent and relieve these symptoms. COPD is usually caused by smoking and the best way to improve symptoms is to give up smoking.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Tiotropium versus long‐acting beta2‐agonists (LABAs) in the management of COPD

Tiotropium is an inhaled medication that helps open the airways (bronchodilator) and is used to manage persistent symptoms of COPD. We found seven studies including 12,223 participants that compared tiotropium with long‐acting beta2‐agonists (LABAs), which are another type of bronchodilator. This systematic review found that currently there is insufficient evidence to suggest which of these treatments provides greater long‐term benefit in quality of life. Furthermore, both treatments had similar effects on symptoms, lung function and death rates.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Are tiotropium plus combination inhalers better than tiotropium or combination inhalers alone for the treatment of COPD?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease that includes the conditions chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. COPD is characterised by narrowing of the airways and lung tissue destruction. Symptoms include breathlessness and long‐term cough. Symptoms of COPD are treatable, but the condition cannot be reversed or cured. It is usually brought on by airway irritants, such as smoking or inhaled dust.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

For people with COPD, is it better to take a combination of tiotropium and long‐acting beta2‐agonists than either inhaler alone?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease that includes the conditions chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The symptoms include breathlessness and a chronic cough. COPD is an irreversible disease that is usually brought on by airway irritants, such as smoking or inhaled dust.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Tiotropium for managing COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease which includes the conditions, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It is caused by smoking or inhaled dust, which leads to blockage or narrowing of the airways. The symptoms include breathlessness and a chronic cough. Tiotropium is an inhaled medication that helps widen the airways (bronchodilator) for up to 24 hours, and is used to manage persistent symptoms of COPD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Anticholinergic medication for neuroleptic‐induced tardive dyskinesia

Synopsis pending.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

No evidence of the efficacy and safety of D‐cycloserine in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease

D‐cycloserine is a broad‐spectrum antibiotic formerly used at high doses (500‐1000 mg/day) for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It has been suggested that D‐cycloserine might improve memory and other cognitive processes through its desired effects on N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. It was not possible to extract the results from the first phases of two included crossover studies of D‐cycloserine for Alzheimer's disease and therefore the meta‐analyses are based on the included two parallel group 6‐month studies. The lack of a positive effect of D‐cycloserine on cognitive outcomes in controlled clinical trials with statistical power high enough to detect a clinically meaningful effect means that D‐cycloserine has no place in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Antispasmodics for labour

A woman who is in active labour for too long (usually set at more than 12 hours) is at risk of becoming exhausted and developing complications such as infection and excessive bleeding. The unborn baby can also be harmed, showing distress and low oxygenation (asphyxia). It is common practice to intervene in the labouring process to avoid this by rupturing membranes (breaking the waters), giving medications to speed up contractions and providing ongoing support. Antispasmodics are drugs that are usually taken to relieve cramps. They work either by direct relaxation of muscle or by interfering with the message sent by the nerves to the muscle to contract. It is thought that these drugs may help with opening the womb (dilatation of the cervix), when given during labour as a preventative or a treatment strategy. This would shorten the time spent in labour. Evidence was sought to support this idea. Twenty‐one randomised controlled studies with a total of 3286 participants were included. The data were combined in an analysis to get an overall result. All types of antispasmodics were given at the beginning of established labour. They decreased the first stage of labour, the time from beginning of labour until the baby is about to be born, by 49 to 98 minutes, as well as the total duration of labour, from the beginning of labour until the delivery of the afterbirth, by 49 to 121 minutes. The drugs did not affect the number of women requiring emergency caesarean sections and did not have serious side effects for either mother or her baby. The most commonly reported adverse events for the mothers were fast heart rates and mouth dryness, but since both maternal and neonatal adverse events were poorly reported, more information is needed to make conclusions about the safety of these drugs during labour. The included studies were mostly of poor quality and good studies are needed to assess what happens when these drugs are given to women whose labour is already prolonged.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Reducing nausea and vomiting in women receiving regional anaesthesia for caesarean section

Caesarean section is a commonly performed operation for the birth of a baby when difficulties arise either for the mother or for the baby. Women may be either awake for the procedure (regional anaesthesia) or asleep (general anaesthesia). Nausea and vomiting are common and distressing symptoms, which can occur during the procedure if the woman is awake or they can also occur after the procedure. Low blood pressure and some of the medications administered during the procedure may contribute to the nausea and vomiting.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs are effective treatment for acute renal colic

Acute renal colic is the pain caused by the blockage of urine flow secondary to urinary stones. The prevalence of kidney stone is thought to be between 2% to 3%, and the incidence has been increasing in recent years due to changes in diet and lifestyle. The renal colic pain is usually a sudden intense pain located in the flank or abdominal areas. This usually happens when a urinary stone blocks the ureter (the tube connecting the kidneys to the bladder). Different types of pain killers are used to ease the discomfort. Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antispasmodics (treatment that suppresses muscle spasms) are used commonly to relieve pain and discomfort. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of commonly used non‐opioid pain killers in adult patients with acute renal colic pain. Fifty studies enrolling 5734 participants were included in this review. Treatments varied greatly and combining of studies was difficult. We found that overall NSAIDs were more effective than other non‐opioid pain killers including antispasmodics for pain reduction and need for additional medication. We also found that the combining NSAIDs with antispasmodics did not increase the efficacy. No serious adverse effects were reported by any of the included studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (113)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (3)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...