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Dialysis makes it possible to continue living with end-stage kidney disease for many years or even decades. There are different types of dialysis. Dialysis at a dialysis center is a good option for many people. Others may prefer a method they can use at home. A kidney transplant is often the best option for people who have end-stage kidney disease, but it's not always possible. In that case, and while waiting for a donor kidney, it’s necessary to have renal (kidney) replacement therapy with dialysis. There are two main types of dialysis, known as hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The most suitable type will depend on medical factors. But because the ways the different types are used in everyday life are so different, personal preferences play a major role in the decision too. So it’s a good idea to learn about the different types of dialysis and talk with your family and doctor to decide which one is the most suitable for you. Thanks to dialysis, it’s possible to live with the disease for many years. How well it works will mainly depend on whether you have any other medical conditions and – if so – what kind, how well the dialysis is prepared, and how successfully you can handle the dialysis, medication and dietary recommendations.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 8, 2018

Bisphosphonates give some relief from pain caused by cancer that has invaded bones. Patients with cancer that has spread to the bone frequently have pain. Pain control is an important part of cancer management. Bisphosphonates are medicines that affect the way bone develops, and are proving useful in treating patients with cancer that has invaded the bone (metastasis). This review looked at the effect of bisphosphonates on pain caused by bone metastases. Bisphosphonates do have some effect but are not as useful as either strong analgesics (such as morphine) or radiotherapy. However, where other methods of pain relief are inadequate, the addition of bisphosphonates can be beneficial. Bisphosphonates can cause nausea and vomiting.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 22, 2002

Pain is commonly experienced in children and young people with diseases that are not curable and which may shorten their lives. These may be cancers or other diseases. Sometimes the pain is under‐treated, particularly for those nearing the end of their lives. There are many different types of drugs that have been developed to treat pain. There are also drugs that were not developed primarily to treat pain but which have an action that may provide pain relief. However, clinical guidelines to support doctors in their choice of treatment for pain are limited. This is because there are few trials specifically in children and young people that have tested the benefits and safety of such drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 13, 2015

Background: Multiple myeloma (also known as myeloma or plasma cell myeloma) is a B‐cell malignancy or, more precisely, plasma cell neoplasm. This cancer grows inside or outside of bones. The bone damage, or osteolytic lesions, may lead to fractures of the long bones or compression fractures in the spine. The mechanism of bone destruction appears to be related to increased bone resorption by cells called osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are drugs that can inhibit bone resorption by reducing the number and activity of osteoclasts.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2018

We reviewed the evidence on the effects and safety of different treatments of osteoporosis in people with beta‐thalassaemia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 10, 2016

‐ may not lead to any difference in bone mineral density (bone thickness and strength).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 17, 2007

We reviewed the evidence about the effect and safety of bisphosphonates in increasing bone mineral density, reducing fractures and improving clinical function in people with osteogenesis imperfecta. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 19, 2016

Cystic fibrosis is a serious genetic disorder that affects many organs (e.g. lung and pancreas). It commonly leads to reduced bone mineral density, known as osteoporosis, which increases the likelihood of fractures. The short‐term and long‐term effects of fractures (e.g. rib and vertebral) may make lung disease worse. Bisphosphonates are drugs that increase bone mineral density by slowing down bone resorption. They are used to treat osteoporosis caused by menopause or the use of corticosteroid drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 13, 2014

We wanted to find out if using bisphosphonate treatment was better or worse than dummy treatment (placebo) to relieve bone pain in people with Paget's disease of bone and determine if treatment could prevent complications. We also wanted to discover which bisphosphonates were better.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2018

Expert-reviewed information summary about pain as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of cancer-associated pain are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 31, 2017

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a type of cancer in which too many Langerhans cells (a type of white blood cell) grow in certain tissues and organs. It can affect one or more parts of the body, such as the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skin, bone, lung, and lymph nodes. Get information about LCH in adults and children, including symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 9, 2018

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 16, 2016

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