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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common reason for emergency hospital admission. The prognosis is serious. Some patients may die as the result of uncontrolled bleeding.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

How do proton pump inhibitors compare in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: October 1, 2010

Current medicines (e.g. Gaviscon Infant®) aim to thicken stomach contents, neutralise stomach acid (ranitidine, omeprazole, lansoprazole) or help the stomach to empty faster (domperidone). We looked at all available studies to try to find out whether any of the medicines currently used for reflux can help babies and children. We wanted to know whether these medicines make babies and children feel better, or whether test results (such as healing of the lining of the oesophagus, assessed through endoscopy (a small camera passed down the food pipe), or lowering of the amount of acidity in the oesophagus, assessed using a pH probe over 24 hours) get better when these medicines are given.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

When taken for a long time, painkillers like diclofenac and ibuprofen can lead to ulcers in the stomach and bowel. But the risk of this happening can be clearly reduced by also taking medication to protect your stomach.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 1, 2015

Approximately 1 in 100 to 1 in 800 people have peptic ulcers. The major causes of peptic ulcer are Helicobacter pylori infection, non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, and smoking. People who have peptic ulcer have upper abdominal pain, which is sometimes accompanied by dyspepsia (that is fullness, bloating, loss of appetite after eating a small amount of food, or nausea). The most serious complications of peptic ulcers are bleeding from the ulcer and perforation of the peptic ulcer, which results in stomach or upper small intestinal contents or both leaking into the tummy. About 1 in 10 people with bleeding peptic ulcer and 1 in 4 people with perforated peptic ulcer die. Peptic ulcers cause approximately 3000 to 4500 deaths per year in the US.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors).

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 18, 2017

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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