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Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is the accumulation of fluid in the macula (central retina) due to leakage from capillaries. Clinically significant CMO following cataract surgery is a complication of unknown cause. Acute CMO, defined as oedema of less than four months duration, often gets better spontaneously. This review included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 266 participants. Four trials studied the effects of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) in chronic CMO while the other three examined the effect of NSAIDs in acute CMO. This review found two trials which showed that topical NSAID (0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution) has a positive effect on chronic CMO and a third trial which was supportive of this finding (albeit not statistically significantly so). One study suggested no effect and our review suggests further work is needed for a more conclusive decision regarding use of NSAIDS in chronic CMO. Similarly, the effects of NSAIDs in acute CMO remain unclear and this too needs further investigation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 15, 2012

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out if topical (applied directly to the surface of the eye) non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for traumatic corneal abrasions reduce pain. Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question. We found nine studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 18, 2017

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs for diabetic cystoid macular oedema.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: February 16, 2015

Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to try and relieve pain after surgery. However, there have been concerns about the possible harmful effects of these drugs on the kidneys. The review of trials found that NSAIDs can cause small, temporary negative effects on the kidneys in adults, but no one in the trials experienced renal failure or serious kidney problems. These results may not apply to children or adults with decreased kidney function

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 18, 2007

Multiple methods of pain control in first trimester surgical abortion at less than 14 weeks gestational age using electric or manual suction aspiration are available, and appear both safe and effective. Pain control methods can be divided in local anesthesia, conscious sedation, general anesthesia and non‐pharmacological methods. Data to support the benefit of the widely used local aneathetic is inadequate. While general anesthesia achieved complete pain control during the procedure, other forms of anesthesia such as conscious sedation with a paracervical block improved postoperative pain control.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 15, 2009

The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out if NSAID eye drops can prevent a sight‐threatening complication of cataract surgery (swelling at the back of the eye, known as macular oedema). Cochrane researchers collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found 34 studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: November 1, 2016

The main limitation of our updated review was that bleeding following tonsillectomy is an uncommon event (occurring in 3% to 5% of children). We found all the data from randomized controlled trials that are currently available (15 trials studying approximately 1000 children). Our results were consistent with both an increased and decreased risk of bleeding. There were insufficient data to compare the risk of bleeding with each individual type of NSAID. However, we were able to compare ketorolac, which has been perceived as having a greater risk of bleeding, with the other NSAIDs and found no increased risk of bleeding. There was less nausea and vomiting when NSAIDs were used as part of the pain relief regime than when NSAIDs were not used.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 18, 2013

How do NSAIDs compare in reducing pain?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: May 1, 2011

People with oral leukoplakia are at higher risk of developing oral cancer than those with normal oral mucosa. This review, produced through Cochrane Oral Health, seeks to evaluate whether people affected by leukoplakia can benefit from surgical, medical or complementary treatments, either local or systemic. In particular, we conducted this review to find out which, if any, treatment is able to prevent people with leukoplakia of the mouth from getting oral cancer. This review updates our previous review published in 2006.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 29, 2016

Women may experience cramping pain and discomfort following the birth of their baby as the uterus contracts and returns to its pre‐pregnancy size. These after pains are caused by involutionary contractions and usually last for two to three days after childbirth. They are more evident for women who have previously had a baby. Breastfeeding stimulates the uterus to contract and increases the severity of after birth pains. This review is about pain relief for after pains experienced by women following vaginal birth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 11, 2011

The aim of this review was to find out if topical non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (alone or taken in combination with topical corticosteroids) or topical corticosteroids alone are better for controlling eye inflammation after cataract surgery. Cochrane review authors collected and analyzed all relevant studies to answer this question and found 48 studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: July 3, 2017

Non‐steroid anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac, ketorolac, tenoxicam, flurbiprofen, etc. are commonly used to relieve biliary colic pain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Expert-reviewed information summary about pain as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of cancer-associated pain are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 31, 2017

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