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The two studies included in this review looked at using LMWH with 5‐FU during retinal detachment repair to see if there was an effect of reducing PVR levels after surgery. One study focused on patients who are considered at high‐risk of developing PVR after surgery because of pre‐existing ocular features, and found beneficial effects of this treatment in this group. The other study looked at a wider group of patients and did not find a benefit in using this combination treatment, and in certain patients the treatment was associated with poorer vision. Due to the inconsistency of the evidence, until further data are available, future research on the use of LMWH with 5‐FU should be conducted only in retinal detachment patients who are likely to develop considerable retinal scarring after surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Raised intraocular pressure is a risk factor for glaucoma. One treatment option is glaucoma drainage surgery (trabeculectomy) to help lower intraocular pressure. Antimetabolites are medicines used during surgery to help reduce scarring after surgery during wound healing. If scarring occurs it can lead to treatment failure because the drainage channel no longer works. Two agents in common use are MMC and 5‐FU.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Glaucoma involves a loss of vision that may be associated with raised pressure inside the eye. When glaucoma is diagnosed, it is common to try to reduce that pressure with medical, laser or surgical procedures (trabeculectomy). Surgery does not immediately restore vision, and may involve extra vision loss in the short term. Drugs can be used to modify wound healing to improve the likelihood of the success of surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

The standard treatment for unresectable liver‐confined metastatic disease from colorectal cancer (CRC) is systemic chemotherapy (SCT). Unfortunately, the prognosis of these patients is dismal and SCT is virtually never curative. Although locoregional treatments such as hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) claim the advantage of delivering higher doses of anticancer agents directly into the diseased organ (i.e., the liver), the benefit in terms of overall survival (OS) is unclear and the use of HAI is debated. This meta‐analysis quantitatively summarizes the results of the ten randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing HAI with systemic chemotherapy (SCT). Our findings show that administration of fluoropyrimidines through HAI yields higher tumor response rates as compared to the SCT regimens used in the analysed RCT. However, this anticancer activity does not translate into a significant survival advantage for patients treated with HAI as compared to those given SCT. Also considering that modern SCT can achieve higher response rates as compared to the regimens adopted in the analysed RCT, the currently available evidence does not support the clinical or investigational use of fluoropyrimidine‐HAI alone for the treatment of patients with unresectable CRC liver metastases.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

The aim of this systematic review was to determine the optimal duration of chemotherapy. Currently, the standard of duration is based upon studies performed in the 90's, and focus on the determination of the best schedule of 5FU treatment alone or in combination with folinic acid or levamisole and the optimal duration of the adjuvant treatment. Different durations of 5FU based treatment were compared: 6 months versus 9‐12 months. Shorter duration of chemotherapy (3‐6 months) compared with longer duration (9‐12 months) did not result in poorer relapse free survival or overall survival. Consequently, the duration of 5FU based chemotherapy in adjuvant setting for colorectal cancer can be reduced to 6 months.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Standard treatment for locally advanced stage cervical cancer (stage IIB to IVA) is 'concurrent chemoradiation' when anticancer drugs are given during the same treatment period as pelvic radiotherapy (radiation therapy to lower abdomen). However, the tumour may remain (residual cancer) or may come back (recurrent cancer) after this standard treatment. This review evaluated whether giving additional anticancer drugs (ACTs) after standard treatment could help women with locally advanced cervical cancer to live longer compared with standard treatment alone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Women with cervical cancer that is too big to be removed by surgery, or has spread to the tissues around the cervix (often called locally advanced cervical cancer) may be treated with radiotherapy (treatment with x‐rays). They might also get chemotherapy (drug treatment) alongside radiotherapy. This is called chemoradiotherapy (or chemoradiation). This review brought together 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that were carried out in many countries. The results of the review showed that women who had chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer were likely to live for longer than women who had just radiotherapy. Five years after being treated, 66 out of every 100 women who received chemoradiotherapy were still alive compared with 60 out of every 100 who just had radiotherapy. Women who received chemoradiotherapy were also less likely to have the cancer come back or spread to other parts of the body. Chemoradiotherapy helped all women, even those with bigger tumours, or tumours that had spread more. Also, the different drugs that had been used in the trials (cisplatin, 5‐fluourouracil or mitomycin‐C) all helped women to live longer or stop the cancer from coming back or spreading.  Some of the short term side effects were worse for women who received chemoradiotherapy. Doctors can usually help women to cope with the short term side effects of their treatment. Unfortunately, there was not enough information to be certain whether the long‐term side effects are worse with chemoradiotherapy or not.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

The use of chemotherapy after curative surgery for non metastatic rectal cancer is widely used in the US, but not in Europe. This systematic review and meta‐analysis, which is the first in this field, shows a significant beneficial effect on both overall (OS) and disease‐free survival (DFS) for patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy after removal of their primary rectal tumour. Further investigation is needed to define the role of postoperative chemotherapy in the multimodal treatment of patients with rectal carcinoma: for instance, modern anti‐cancer agents (including so called "smart drugs") and integration with neoadjuvant therapy (such as preoperative chemoradiation) should be taken into consideration in order to improve the encouraging findings of this meta‐analysis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Patients with inoperable colorectal cancer (CRC) are likely to receive chemotherapy drugs as their primary treatment. Irinotecan (IRI) and fluoropyrimidines are two such drugs widely used in this setting, either alone or as part of multi‐drug chemotherapy treatments.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Bowel cancer commonly spreads to the liver. In most patients this cannot be removed by an operation and cure is not possible. Chemotherapy treatment can help control the growth of the cancer and improve survival. Radioactive beads can be injected into the blood vessels of the liver to try and control the cancer in the liver. In one study that had 21 participants, radioactive beads (injected into the blood vessels of the liver) given with chemotherapy (into the veins of the arm) was more effective at controlling the cancer and improving how long people lived than chemotherapy given on it's own. However, in this study more people who received the radioactive beads suffered from side effects and this study used an older type of chemotherapy that is less effective than the newer treatments that are now available. In a second study with 63 participants, radioactive beads were given with chemotherapy that was injected directly into the blood vessels of the liver. In this study there was no extra benefit in the control of cancer growth or survival for those participants who received radioactive beads in addition to the chemotherapy. More studies are needed with a particular focus on whether radioactive beads provides extra benefit when given with newer chemotherapy treatments, and if radioactive beads provide benefit when given on their own.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Genital warts is one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infection, with an estimated occurrence of about 32 million cases worldwide each year. The warts affect the genital area and cause such symptoms as itching, burning, discomfort, pain, or bleeding with intercourse. Because of the recurrence and the stigma associated with genital warts, frequently there are psychological burdens associated with the disease that possibly could become traumatic as feeling of shame, worry, fear, anger, and lowered self‐esteem develop. Lesions can spread on one person and because they are easily spread between people, genital warts potentially can be a serious public health problem. There are many options for treating genital warts, but none so far are superior to the others. At this time, there is no available evidence that treatment efficiently eliminates genital warts or hinders its progression to malignancy. This review evaluated the effectiveness and safety of topical 5‐FU for treatment of genital warts in nonimmunocompromised individuals. Evidence from the studies we reviewed showed that 5‐FU had better results for cure than placebo or no treatment; MCSA; and Podophylin 2%, 4% or 25%. No statistical difference was found when 5‐FU was compared with CO2 Laser treatment, and results were poor when 5‐FU was compared with 5‐FU + INFα‐2a (high dose) or 5‐FU + CO2 Laser INFα‐2a (high dose). The weak point of this review was the great variability in the methods and quality of the studies that we included.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Stomach cancer is the second leading cause of cancer‐related death worldwide. Surgery is the only curative treatment offered to patients suffering from this cancer. Survival rates, however, are still poor. Chemotherapy given after surgery has been developed in order to improve these results. We identified 34 trials with 7824 patients which randomised patients to surgery with post‐surgical chemotherapy versus surgery alone. The group who received chemotherapy had a survival benefit and improvement in disease free survival (15% and 21%, respectively), although all the trials had a high risk of bias. There was no significant difference due to the stage of disease or the chemotherapy agent used.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Cancer of the esophagus often is not discovered until it is at quite an advanced stage. This means that even removing the tumor through surgery is not very successful, and many people die within five years. Chemotherapy (cancer‐fighting drugs such as cisplatin) has been used before surgery to try to shrink the tumor, making it easier to operate on and stopping it from spreading. Therefore, chemotherapy may help people to live longer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

We reviewed the ability of chemotherapy drugs (medicines used to treat cancer) to reduce tumour size and improve survival in people with metastatic colorectal cancer who had not responded to a prior treatment. We also looked at the side effects caused by the different drug regimens.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

Bowen's disease is the clinical term for a particular precancerous skin lesion. These lesions rarely cause patients any symptoms, but appear as well‐defined scaly patches on sun‐exposed skin, commonly in those over 60 years. They occur more in women and most frequently involve the lower legs of those affected in the UK. It is not known why, but the body sites most commonly affected vary across different countries. In general, people with Bowen's disease have an excellent prognosis because the disease is typically slow to develop and responds favourably to treatment. Lesions are usually slow‐growing, and although they are not life‐threatening, there is a small risk of progression to a skin cancer (estimated to be 3%) known as invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Viral warts are a common skin disease, most frequently affecting the hands and feet, caused by the human papilloma virus. While warts are not harmful and usually go away in time without any treatment, they can be unsightly and painful. Warts on the soles of the feet are also called 'plantar warts' or 'verrucas'.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women. Most women with early stage cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or, radiotherapy, or both. Radiotherapy uses high energy x‐rays to damage tumour cells. Chemotherapy (anti‐cancer) drugs use different ways to stop tumour cells dividing so they stop growing or they die.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

We reviewed the evidence for the effectiveness and complications of different approaches (fornix‐based versus limbal‐based incisions) of drainage surgery (trabeculectomy) in adults with glaucoma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

This review has been produced to assess whether or not keeping the mouth cold during cancer treatment, by using ice, ice‐cold water, ice cream or ice lollies/popsicles, can help prevent mouth soreness and ulcers in children and adults.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Of all people with gastric cancer, in countries where screening is not routinely performed, 80% to 90% are either diagnosed at an advanced stage when the tumour is inoperable, or develop a recurrence within five years after surgery. Before starting any systemic chemotherapy in advanced disease, testing for over expression of the Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor‐2 (abbreviated HER‐2) testing is mandatory, and people with HER‐2 over expression need, in the absence of contraindications, to be treated by a combination of a cisplatin/fluoropyrimidine‐based chemotherapy and trastuzumab (i.e. a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor II).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2017

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