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Frequent chest infections in people with cystic fibrosis cause long‐lasting inflammation in their lungs. Cells causing inflammation produce a kind of oxygen molecule (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) which can easily harm proteins and DNA (oxidative damage). To fight these effects, the body may produce antioxidants. The genetic defect in cystic fibrosis leads to an imbalance favouring the high production of harmful ROS over the low level of protective antioxidants. Antioxidant supplements might help reduce the oxidative damage in the lungs from constant infection and build up low levels of antioxidants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 7, 2014

Cochrane authors reviewed the evidence of the effect of dietary supplements (e.g. vitamins, minerals, herbs) on period pain (dysmenorrhoea).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: March 22, 2016

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of vitamin E for preventing chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the joints (commonly knees, hips, hands). When joints lose cartilage, bone grows to try to repair the damage. Instead of making things better, however, the bone grows abnormally and makes things worse. For example, the bone can become misshapen and make the joint painful and limit movement. OA can affect your physical function, particularly your ability to use your joints.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: May 22, 2014

BACKGROUND: There are conflicting results in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the role of vitamin E in the prevention of cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate the role of vitamin E in the prevention of cancer in adults.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus carries a high risk for vascular events. Diabetics with different haptoglobin (Hp) types may carry different risk profiles, and may respond differently to vitamin E treatment. We aim to summarize the evidence about cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients, according to their Hp type, and the effect of vitamin E treatment on these sub-groups.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (<400 IU/d) of vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence of the supplements vitamin C and vitamin E for treatment and prevention of cancer.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

It was the objective of this work to systematically evaluate the role of vitamin E supplementation in the prevention of stroke. Eligible studies were identified from Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. The efficacy data is the relative risk (RR) for the events of stroke. Thirteen randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with 166,282 participants in total, were analysed. The pooled results showed no significant benefit in the vitamin E group with respect to stroke of any type (RR 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96, 1.07); ischaemic stroke (RR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.09), haemorrhagic stroke (RR 1.12; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.33), fatal stroke (RR 0.94; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.14), and non-fatal stroke (RR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.08). Administration of vitamin E 300 IU/day or more also gain no benefit (RR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.06), as well as vitamin E less than 300 IU (RR 1.05; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.15). Vitamin E supplementation gained benefit of preventing stroke for neither healthy people (0.92; 0.83, 1.03) nor others at high risks in baseline (RR 1.05; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12). Administration of synthetic vitamin E gain no benefit (RR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.09), as well as the natural source vitamin E (RR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.09). In conclusion, there is a lack of statistically significant or clinically important benefit of vitamin E supplementation in the prevention of stroke.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Lowering haemoglobin A(₁c) (HbA(₁c)) has clearly been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes and possibly macrovascular disease and vitamin E has been suggested as a possibly useful intervention. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

OBJECTIVE: The antioxidant vitamin E has been extensively employed to treat chronic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin E supplementation in lowering alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and chronic hepatitis C (CHC).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To systemically evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant vitamin E on the outcomes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Observational studies have revealed that higher serum vitamin E concentrations and increased vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplementation are associated with beneficial effects on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, whether vitamin E supplementation exerts a definitive effect on glycaemic control remains unclear. This article involves a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vitamin E to better characterise its impact on HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were electronically searched from the earliest possible date through April 2013 for all relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated for net changes using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Standard methods for assessing statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were used. Fourteen randomised controlled trials involving individual data on 714 subjects were collected in this meta-analysis. Increased vitamin E supplementation did not result in significant benefits in glycaemic control as measured by reductions in HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.58%, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.34) and fasting insulin (-9.0 pmol/l, 95% CI -15.90 to -2.10) compared with controls in patients with low baseline vitamin E status. Subgroup analyses also demonstrated that the outcomes may have been influenced by the vitamin E dosage, study duration, ethnic group, serum HbA1c concentration, and fasting glucose control status. In conclusion, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on improvements of HbA1c and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in subjects with T2DM.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

BACKGROUND: Vitamin E-coated dialyzer may have an effect on oxidative stress and inflammation status in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to assess the anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin E-coated dialyzer in HD patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

The review concluded that vitamin E did not have a protective role in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Despite the potential for selection biases, the review was generally well conducted. The authors’ conclusions are based on the evidence and appear appropriate.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

This review evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation on the incidence of total, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. The authors concluded that vitamin E increased the risk for haemorrhagic stroke by 22% and reduced the risk for ischaemic stroke by 10%. The authors' conclusions and recommendations for research and practice seem likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

This review assessed the dose-response relationship between vitamin E supplementation and mortality, and found that doses greater than or equal to 400 IU per day may have increased all-cause mortality. The lack of a quality assessment and the clinical differences across the included studies weaken the evidence presented.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

This review evaluated vitamin E supplements for the prevention of heart attacks and stroke. No effects were seen for most of the outcomes investigated, except for a small reduction in nonfatal heart attacks when vitamin E supplements were given to people with pre-existing heart disease. The authors' conclusions that vitamin E supplements are cost-effective and safe may be overstated.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

This review assessed the effectiveness of vitamin E supplementation for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The authors concluded that there is good evidence that vitamin E supplementation does not beneficially or adversely affect cardiovascular outcomes. This was a very well-conducted systematic review and the authors' conclusions are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Epidemiologic studies that investigate whether vitamin C and E intake protects against bladder cancer have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published cohort and case-control studies to summarize the epidemiologic evidence investigating vitamin C and E intake and bladder cancer. Studies were identified through a search of PubMed and Embase databases and of references from relevant publications. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate summary risk estimates (REs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vitamin C and E intake using fixed- or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity of the studies. Subgroup analyses were performed according to study design, sex, geographical regions and source of vitamins intake. The summary REs of bladder cancer for all published studies was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90) for vitamin C and E intake, respectively, with no evidence of between-study heterogeneity for vitamin E, but some heterogeneity for vitamin C intake. Although some of the summary effects were non-significant, subgroup analyses showed that these inverse relationships were not modified by study design, sex, geographical regions and source of vitamins intake for vitamin E intake. Our results indicated that high intake of vitamin E could reduce bladder cancer risk. However, the inverse association between vitamin C and bladder cancer seemed to be limited. Further studies using larger samples and a rigorous methodology are warranted.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

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