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OBJECTIVES: Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

The purpose of this report is to retrieve and review existing evidence of the clinical efficacy, safety and guidelines for the use of cranberry products and topical estrogen-based therapies for Urinary tract infection (UTI) prophylaxis.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: October 27, 2016

To assess the comparative effectiveness of interventions for improving antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in adults and children.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2016

This review of antimicrobial drug treatment for persistent diarrhoea in children in low and middle income countries concluded that there was limited evidence for whether or not it reduced the duration of illness or had any health impact. Based on the small amount of available evidence, the authors' cautious conclusions appear to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

The review concluded that low-dose trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole gave similar results to the high-dose regime and should be considered a safe option in transplanted patients. The review suffered from potential sources of bias that included a limited search, inclusion of poor quality studies, heterogeneity and a small number of studies. The authors' conclusions are unlikely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

The review concluded that cotrimoxazole significantly increased survival in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in low and middle income countries. Further research on duration of therapy was needed. Potential for methodological problems, variable quality of the included studies and unexplained heterogeneity mean that a degree of caution is warranted when interpreting the authors’ conclusions and recommendations.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

The authors concluded that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be used as second-line treatment for patients with AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia who fail first-line treatment with other regimens. The limited search, incomplete reporting of review methods, differences between studies and lack of direct comparisons between treatments meant that the authors’ conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007

Unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics is a major problem in the US and worldwide, contributing to the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This review examines the effects of quality improvement strategies on reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics, targeting both prescribing of antibiotics for non-bacterial illnesses (“the antibiotic treatment decision”) and prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics when narrow-spectrum agents are indicated (“the antibiotic selection decision”).

Technical Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2006

The guideline covers men (18 and over) with a clinical working diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Options for conservative, pharmacological, surgical, and complementary or alternative treatments are considered in terms of clinical and cost effectiveness.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: 2010

Plain language summary pending.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 21, 2002

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can cause serious infections. Methicillin‐resistant S. aureus (MRSA) refers to strains of S. aureus that are resistant to many antibiotics including the penicillins. Hospital infection control staff want to limit the spread of MRSA for several reasons and one of the ways of doing this is to use either topical or oral antimicrobial drugs in an attempt to eradicate MRSA from individuals who are colonized. However there is insufficient evidence to support the use of topical or oral antimicrobial therapy for eradicating nasal or extra‐nasal MRSA. No one type of treatment either topical or oral or a combinations of both showed a superior effect. Potentially serious adverse events and development of antimicrobial resistance can result from therapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 20, 2003

Many conventional treatments for uncomplicated malaria are failing because malaria parasites develop resistance to them. This can be reduced by treating people with combination drugs such as atovaquone‐proguanil. The review found 10 trials, most of low methodological quality and most funded by a single pharmaceutical company. In addition, trials were small and had few participants thus evidence suggesting atovaquone‐proguanil as more effective than a number of single drug treatments at eliminating the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite from the blood was limited. There were few good quality data comparing atovaquone‐proguanil with other new combination therapies. There were not enough data to assess adverse events, but all trials recorded some adverse events.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 19, 2005

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), formerly called Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, is the most common opportunistic infection among patients infected with HIV. In 1990, based on evidence from five randomised controlled trials, an expert panel recommended the use of corticosteroids for HIV‐infected patients with PCP and substantial hypoxaemia (low levels of oxygen in the blood).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: April 2, 2015

Using a pilot system we have categorised this review as: Current question ‐ no update intended (topic covered in another review. Refer to: Sinclair D, Zani B, Donegan S, Olliaro P, Garner P. Artemisinin‐based combination therapy for treating uncomplicated malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD007483. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007483.pub2.) Please see "Published notes" section of the review for more details.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: October 19, 2005

Venous leg ulcers are a type of wound that can take a long time to heal. These ulcers can become infected, and this might cause further delay to healing. Two types of treatment are available to treat infection: systemic antibiotics (i.e. antibiotics taken by mouth or by injection) and topical preparations (i.e. treatments applied directly to the wound). Whether systemic or topical preparations are used, patients will also usually have a wound dressing and bandage over the wound. This review was undertaken to find out whether using antibiotics and antiseptics works better than usual care in healing venous leg ulcers, and if so, to find out which antibiotic and antiseptic preparations are better than others. In terms of topical preparations, some evidence is available to support the use of cadexomer iodine (a topical agent thought to have cleansing and antibacterial effects). Current evidence does not support the use of honey‐ or silver‐based products. Further good quality research is required before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of antibiotic tablets and topical agents such as povidone‐iodine, peroxide‐based products and other topical antibiotics and antiseptics in healing venous leg ulceration.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: January 10, 2014

Cochrane Collaboration researchers conducted a review of the effects of antibiotics for treating people with cholera. After searching for relevant trials, they included 39 randomized controlled trials enrolling 4623 people with cholera.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: June 19, 2014

Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) involves infection and inflammation of the prostate gland in men of all ages. It can cause problems urinating, including discomfort and pain, increased frequency and urge, or problems emptying the bladder. Bacteria infecting the prostate are the cause of CBP. These bacteria may be sexually transmitted. To cure CBP, antibiotics must be administered for extended periods of time (four weeks or longer), but a permanent cure is not always guaranteed. Other drugs may be combined with antibiotics to improve CBP symptoms. This review found that fluoroquinolones like ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin or prulifloxacin have equivalent effects and equivalent success rates in CBP patients. If atypical bacteria like chlamydia are suspected to cause CBP, macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin may achieve better results compared to the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. It must be taken into account that some of the studies that have been performed are of poor quality or have been performed on small numbers of participants. More studies are needed, focusing on new agents or on optimized doses of currently prescribed antibiotics.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: August 12, 2013

We reviewed the evidence for antibiotics to prevent bacterial lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children aged 12 years and under who are at increased chance of contracting such infections.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: September 26, 2015

When young children suddenly experience the onset of diarrhoea, with or without vomiting, infective gastroenteritis is by far the most common explanation. A range of enteric viruses, bacteria and protozoal pathogens may be responsible. Viral infections account for most cases in the developed world. Gastroenteritis is very common, with many infants and young children experiencing more than one episode in a year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: April 2009

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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